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AHSGE study prep for History portion
Spanish began sending conquistadors to conquer and claim the land To take gold and silver from the natives Spanish then forced the natives to work as slaves on large farms called plantations. Disease killed millions of Indians (small pox) This caused the Spanish to turn to enslaving Africans in the late 1600’s Most of the slaves came from West Africa Approximately 20% died on the voyage to America Sugar was a major crop grown in Latin America because of its value in Europe.
British Defeat Spanish Armada
1607- Britain set up its first colony at Jamestown. Colony suffered horribly until a crop was found that could be sold for a profit. Tobacco (“brown gold”) The demand for tobacco created a need for more workers in the colony. (Headright system and indentured servants) Triangular trade developed between the Americas, Europe, and Africa. This exchange of goods was called the Columbian Exchange- triangular trade was a huge part of this. The Columbian Exchange caused new goods to be introduced to this continent.
Puritans set up Plymouth The Puritans were very intolerant Another group of Puritans arrived ten years later-Massachustts Bay Colony ( John Winthrop) Winthrop envisioned a “city on a hill” The Massachusetts Colony never suffered like Jamestown because they were hard workers.
The Protestant Reformation Began when Martin Luther wrote his 95 Thesis. He criticized such things as selling of indulgences. Those who followed Luther were called Protestants. Also affected the American colonies because many Protestants fled Europe to America.
William Penn set up Pennsylvania. Roger Williams set up Rhode Island Duke of York created New York and New Jersey Northern and Southern colonies developed very differently South had a warm climate and good soil- ideal for farming. North- colder; developed some farming but also early industries Colonies were growing
Mid 1700s- French and Indian war
Britain won and got all French Land west to the Miss. River. Britain expected the colonies to repay this debt through higher taxes. Colonists hated these taxes because they had no representation in the British government. Britain passed laws to control trade in the colonies and raise their taxes. This would lead directly to the American Revolution.
American Revolution Boston Tea Party- Protest against Britain’s control over the tea trade. Boston Massacre- the incident was used by colonial leaders to try and get people mad enough to fight Britain. Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense- the purpose of the pamphlet was to argue the reasons why the colonists would be better off independent.
Separate from Britain
1775- First shots were fired at Lexington and Concord Largest battle was Bunker Hill First Continental Congress met and named George Washington as the head of the Continental Army. July 4, 1776- Continental Congress signed the Declaration of Independence- written mostly by Thomas Jefferson Jefferson used many of the ideas of John Lockenatural rights French finally agreed to aid the colonies after the colonial victory at Saratoga. Won a huge victory at Yorktown. Treaty of Paris was signed ending the war.
Permanent Government 1st constitution was called the Articles of Confederation, and it had many problems. By 1787 the 13 states were acting like 13 nations. Meeting was held in Philadelphia that became known as the Constitutional Convention. The U.S. Constitution came out of this meeting.
U.S. Constitution Three branches of government- legislative (congress), executive (president), judicial (federal courts) Anti-Federalists- feared that the rights of people would suffer. To win support for ratification (approval) of the Constitution the Federalists who supported this new constitution promised a Bill of Rights. There are now a total of 27 amendments.
U.S. Constitution (cont.)
Contains a provision for separation of powers As well as checks and balances. Gave the federal government more power, but also preserved the rights of the people. George Washington 1st president First political powers formed over the ratification of the Constitution- Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Constitution creates a federal system shares power with the states. The Constitution contains an elastic-clause that allows government to “stretch” its powers in order to keep up with the times. The Constitution contains a supremacy clause that states that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land.
1804- President Thomas Jefferson purchased Louisiana from France. It doubled the size of the U.S. Lewis and Clark expedition was organized to explore this new land (Sacajawea served as a guide and interpreter for this expedition.
2nd war fought with Britain- War of 1812
U.S. angry over the British policy of impressment (American sailors were basically being kidnapped and forced to serve in the British navy.
Jacksonian Democracy Jackson is responsible for the forced Indian removal from the South- The Trail of Tears. Jackson is also responsible for the spoils system where he awarded his political supports jobs in the government.
Major Amendments Relating to Freedom 13th Amendment-
slavery 14th- made slaves citizens 15th- gave African American males the right to vote 19th-gave women the right to vote
Oppose Slavery Harriet Tubman helped form the underground railroad to help slaves escape the South. William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglas formed newspapers that spoke against slavery. Sojourner Truth- an African American woman spoke out for rights for blacks and women.
Manifest Destiny Attempts were made such as the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850 to prevent war. Lewis and Clark explored the west.
By the 1850s the North and South had grown apart due to the issues of slavery and states’ rights. Dred Scott decision (Supreme Court ruled that slaves were property and that being in a free territory did not make a slave free) John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry (pushed the nation closer to war) 1861- war broke out when Southern troops fired on Fort Sumter. Bloodiest war in American history- approximately 600,000 killed Major battles- Gettysburg, Bull Run, Antietam, Shiloh, Chancellorsville President Lincoln led the nation through this period. Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation which changed the focus of the war to freeing the slaves. Jefferson Davis served as President of the Confederate States of America. South’s major generals- Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson North’s major generals- George McClellan, Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman
Reconstruction Republicans in the North’s government used Reconstruction to punish the South for the war and Lincoln’s assassination Reconstruction was intended to be a way to help give African Americans more rights in the South. Republicans in the South fit into 3 categories- “carpetbaggers” (Northerners who came to the South after the war; “scalawags”(Southerners who joined the Republican Party; and Africans who joined the Republican Party)
Reconstruction ended 1877- Southern Democrats regained control over their government. Late 1800s- Plessy vs. FergusonSupreme Court case that legalized segregation. Later in the 1950s- Brown vs. Board of Education- Supreme Court said that facilities were not equal and that America had to integrate
Indian Wars fought after the Civil War Major battle was Little Bighorn where General George Custer and all his men were killed. Transcontinental Railroad was built 1848- The U.S. fought a war with Mexico
U.S. Begin to Industrialize
Wealthy men called “robber barrens” Social Darwinism- “survival of the fittest” Many of these people created monopolies that controlled entire industries Examples: Andrew Carnegie (U.S. Steel), John D. Rockefeller (Standard Oil Company) Many people flocked to the cities to try and find jobs in factories 1870-1920- 20 million immigrants came to the U.S. Many discriminated against immigrants by arguing that the immigrants were taking their jobs. Many children were working in factories. Cities became overcrowded- sanitation was horrible, diseases spread, little police and fire protection
Teddy Roosevelt led the Rough Riders in this war and became a war hero U.S, gained Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines as colonies Progressives fought child labor and alcohol (Prohibition), also to improve living conditions. Journalists who wrote about corruption in society were called “muckrackers” ex. Upton Sinclair described condition of the meat packing companies. Horace Mann fought for public education for children. Progressives got the 17th amendment passed that allowed U.S. senators to be elected directly by the voters in each state.
World War I
1914- World War I broke out U.S. stayed out of the war until 1917 when German subs would help bring us into the war (sinking the Lusitania) Russians pulled out of the war in 1917 when the Russian Revolution broke out War ended in 1918 After WWI we isolated ourselves to avoid war Isolationism caused the U.S. not to ratify the Treaty of Versailles that ended WWI The Treaty of Versailles would help cause WWII because of the way it treated Germany (Hitler would use the treaty to help him come to power)
People bought cars, loved sports, alcohol was banned, women were called flappers Jazz age authors- Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald Came to an end on Oct. 29, 1929 when the stock market crashed- official beginning of the Great Depression 25% unemployed at one point President Hoover received much of the blame because he refused to get the government directly involved in helping people
Franklin D. Roosevelt FDR created a huge program to try and pull us out of the Depression- New Deal New Deal tried to put people to work (WPA,CCC, TVA, etc) Ultimately, World War II brought about an end to the depression Factories ran wide open during the wargave people jobs
World War II
Sept. 1,1939- WWII began with Hitler’s invasion of Poland- he quickly took much of Europe. We did not become involved until we were attacked by Japanese at Pearl Harbor (Dec.7, 1941) Major battle- June 6, 1944- invasion of Northern France at Germany (D-Day) After Germany’s defeat the Japanese still would not surrender U.S. decided to drop atomic bombs in Japan to force them to surrender (President Truman)
Alabama Facts Alabama’s current constitution was written in 1901- very discriminatory against African Americans when written Booker T. Washington established Tuskegee Institute as a school for blacks George Washington Carver was Tuskegee’s most famous scientistexperimented with peanuts and sweet potatoes Dr. William Gorgas helped build the Panama Canal by killing mosquitoes in the canal zone that was killing workers