File - 7th Grade Social Studies!

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, Revolution And Post-Independence (1775-1820), War Of 1812
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Foreign Policy in the Early Years

Major Foreign Policy Theories  Neutrality:  Staying out of it – not even choosing sides in an arguement

 Isolationism:  Avoiding any agreements with other countries; just sticking to yourself

 Involvement:  Getting involved in other nations’ situations/problems

What should President Adams do to protect American Ships?  Problem:  Britain refused to leave Ohio River Valley  France wanted this to cause a war b/t America and Britain  Chief Justice John Jay sent to Britain to settle  = Jay Treaty  British pull troops from O.R.V =France views as a betrayal (they don’t like Britain) =French navy attacks American ships going to Britain (316 American ships taken!)

What should President Adams do to protect American Ships?  Solution:  Adams sent three reps. To France to end attacks  Met by secret agents X, Y, and Z “NO PEACE TALKS w/OUT TRIBUTE!”  Tribute = money paid in defeat or to protect  America won’t pay

 U.S. built up army and navy and “half war” on sea

What should President Adams do to protect American Ships?  Solution part 2:  War not good for country  peace mission  Napoleon stopped seizing ships  End French/American alliance  France won’t pay for ships they had taken  Adams’s popularity down!

How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?  Problem – Part 1:  American ships came between French and British fights (each wanted to stop supplies from going to their enemy)  Jefferson tried for neutrality  Got worse; began to impress American sailors  Impressment: Kidnapping  Even open fired on one ship, the Chesapeake

How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?  Solution – part 1:  Embargo: Stop trading with other nations  No foreign ships could enter U.S. ports and no American ships could leave except to trade with other Americans  Hoped it would hurt France and Britain’s economy so much they would stop

How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?  Outcome – part 1:  Hurt America more than Europe  Act repealed  Attacks continued

How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?  Problem – part 2:  Pirates from northern Africa (Barbary States) were taking ships and holding crews for ransom  In past, Washington and Adams both paid tribute to them

 Tripoli even declared war on U.S.  Keep paying or war?

How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?  Solution – part 2:  Small fleet of warships to protect, ended up bombarding Tripoli with cannons  The Philadelphia was captured and held for ransom

 Peace Treaty  U.S. pay $60,000 ransom in exchange for a stop in tribute payments

How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?  Outcome – Part 2:  Other Barbary States continued their attacks  1815: America and Europe destroyed pirate bases

What should President Madison do to protect sailors and settlers?  Problem:  Britain and France still attacking American ships  Madison Offers France and Britain to stop trading with the other if they stop the attacks  Napoleon agrees but secretly doesn’t stop attacks  Britain refuses  Can we handle war with Britain?  Southerners and Westerners wanted war (War Hawks) – thought it would make land west of Appalachians safer  We thought Britain was supplying Native Americans with weapons via Canada

What should President Madison do to protect sailors and settlers?  Problem cont.  How do we know about the weapon supply?  Two Shawnee Indians – Chief Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa, the Prophet  were sick of getting kicked off their land so they united Native Americans up and down Mississippi River  Followed Tenskwatawa because:  He claimed American guns couldn’t harm them  Claimed the Great Spirit told them they would win the battle – could tell the future!  Uniting is the only way protect/conquer

 Built a center – Prophetstown

What should President Madison do to protect sailors and settlers?  Indiana Governor Harrison organized militia to march to Prophetstown  Tenskwatawa decided to attack first (Tecumseh was away recruiting) Native Americans attacked them…but Harrison’s militia still won  N.A. were not prepared because they believed they were harmless

 Also….

We found British guns!!

What should President Madison do to protect sailors and settlers?  Solution:  No more isolationism!  Group of leaders called the War Hawks in the West and South fought for America to go to war  Declared war on Britain on July 17, 1812….with only 7,000 men and 16 ships  Reasons for War…RECAP!  Westerners wanted to conquer part of Canada  To stop the supply of weapons to the N.A.  To stop the attack on American ships

The War of 1812  The War: Invasion of Canada

 Invade Canada = driven back 3 times  Lands west of Appalachians safer b/c Tecumseh was killed…momentum down  America burnt the city of York (modern day Toronto) – huge British loss

The War of 1812  The War: Washington D.C.

 British invaded Washington D.C. in 1814 and burnt the city!

 Revenge for Toronto  Dolly Madison ran back into burning White House to grab a portrait of George Washington.

The War of 1812  The War: Baltimore

 On Sept. 13 1814, the Baltimore harbor was already being guarded by Americans so British were forced to shell/bomb the whole harbor (= red glow)  American flag still flew next morning….”The Star-Spangled Banner.”  Francis Scott Key wrote b/c he was so happy  Eventually became our National Anthem!

The War of 1812  The War: New Orleans  General Andrew Jackson was already defending New Orleans (think back – why so important?)  Jackson and his men fought one of the strongest American battles  2000 British killed or wounded…only 20 Americans!  =Andrew Jackson is a hero!  Except…  The war was already over! (Treaty was signed several weeks before)  However…still brought a lot of American pride  Able to beat British again…

The War of 1812  Outcome:  Before the Battle of New Orleans, Treaty of Ghent was signed  Treaty didn’t solve any of the issues that led to the war; pretty much  But peace for a little while!

Recap on President Madison  America’s 4th president  Not a great people-person  Wife, Dolley Madison, handled many of the social aspects of being president  Even a large part of the reason her husband won the position  Opened the door for women to become more involved

 Then, during the White House fire, ran back to get a portrait of George Washington

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