File - Mrs. Poorman`s Class

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, Colonial History (1600-1775)
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The American Revolution 1775-1783 Flour Bluff JHS 2014-15

U.S. History

Poorman/Jensen/Clow

An Uneven Fight • After the colonists declared independence in the summer of 1776, war was inevitable. • Both sides believed the war would be over quickly.

Why the British should win Britain had an overwhelming advantage: 1) Strongest navy in the world 2) Experienced, well-trained army 3) The wealth of a worldwide empire 4) Larger population (8 million vs. 2.5 million)

1)

(But bright red uniforms? Maybe they should have rethunk that.)

Why the British should win • The colonists had serious disadvantages: 1) Lacked a regular army, navy, weapons, ammunition and experience. 2) Congress could not collect taxes to pay for war. 3) Not all Americans supported the war.

Which side of the fence? Colonists who remained loyal to Britain were called loyalists (or “Tories.”) Colonists who supported independence were called patriots.

Why the colonists should win • The British also had disadvantages: 1) They had to ship supplies and soldiers across an entire ocean. 2) They were unfamiliar with the land. 3) British and Hessians (German mercenaries) fought for money, not passionate beliefs. 4) They were an occupying force – invaders of other people’s property.

Promises, Promises • Many African-Americans fought for the British because they were promised their freedom.

Why the colonists should win • The Patriots did have some advantages: 1) Fought on their own land with determination 2) Fought for their own freedom and land 3) They had a great leader in George Washington

Ladies lead the way • Many women (Molly Pitcher, Deborah Sampson, Margaret Corbin) helped with the war.

The Early Years • In the summer of 1776, Britain sent 32,000 troops to the colonies, under the command of Gen. William Howe.

The Early Years • On Sept. 22, 1776, 21-year-old Nathan Hale was caught by Howe’s troops and hanged as a spy. His famous last words: “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”

The Early Years • George Washington wanted African Americans to be allowed to fight, but Southern states feared revolts and refused to give guns to slaves. Some northern states did anyway.

First Victory • Normally, no fighting occurred during the colder months, so a Hessian army settled in New Jersey for the winter. • George Washington saw an opportunity to catch the British off their guard.

First Victory • On Christmas night, 1776, 2,400 colonial troops crossed the icy Delaware River.

This is a very famous painting...

First Victory • On Christmas night, 1776, 2,400 colonial troops crossed the icy Delaware River.

This one’s probably more accurate.

First Victory • At the Battle of Trenton, the Continental Army surprised and captured 900 Hessians.

A New Plan • In January of 1777, Gen. John Burgoyne had a plan to take control of the Hudson River, which would isolate New England from the rest of the colonies.

Britain on the move • Burgoyne captured Fort Ticonderoga on June 2, 1777. • But as Burgoyne's army marched south, Patriot militia circled north, cutting the British supply line.

Victory at Saratoga • In October of 1777, after defeat in Vermont and a tie in New York, Burgoyne retreated 10 miles and surrendered his remaining 6,000 British forces at Saratoga, N.Y.

Victory at Saratoga • The victory at Saratoga was the turning point of the war. It boosted spirits and convinced people around the world that the Americans could win.

Foreign aid • Benjamin Franklin was in Paris trying to gain support. The victory at Saratoga caused the French to declare war on Britain. • Spain soon followed and also declared war on Britain.

“The enemy of the enemy is my friend.”

Trying times • Washington was in Valley Forge, Pa., during the winter of 1777-1778. They suffered terribly. • Widespread hunger, lack of clothing and other supplies and diseases killed 2,000 soldiers.

Trying times • Thomas Paine wrote The American Crisis. He said, “These are the times that try men’s souls.” • When Washington received word of France’s support, it raised the spirits of the troops.

Help from Other Nations • Inspired by the Declaration of Independence and American ideas of freedom, the French nobleman Marquis de Lafayette used his own money to come to America. • Lafayette became one of Washington’s most trusted aides.

I’m so fancy/You don’t even know…

Help from Other Nations • Friederich von Steuben came from Germany. He drilled the troops, taught them how to march, and introduced latrines (toilets) to camp. • Von Steuben turned the Continental Army into an effective fighting force.

Other Important Americans Wentworth Cheswell • African-American who rode to warn Portsmouth, N.H., of the arrival of British ships. • Also served in the Continental Army and fought at the Battle of Saratoga.

Other Important Americans Mercy Otis Warren • American woman who wrote poetry and plays supporting the independence movement. • She was a friend of Abigail Adams and, like Adams, believed women should have the right to vote.

Other Important Americans James Armistead • American slave and spy who pretended to be a British spy (double agent). • He provided Americans with valuable information about the British, setting up the final victory.

Other Important Americans Bernardo de Galvez • Naval commander and governor of Spanish Louisiana who gathered troops and sent weapons to George Washington. • He also battled and defeated the British at New Orleans and in Florida.

Other Important Americans

Haym Salomon • Polish-born Jewish American who helped the Continental Army by providing money and other financial help.

On the Seas • A British blockade kept Americans from receiving supplies and reinforcements from overseas. • American privateers captured more British ships than the entire American navy.

On the Seas • In September of 1779, American naval war hero John Paul Jones, aboard the Bonhomme Richard (named after Ben Franklin) engaged in a four-hour battle with the HMS Serapis off the British coast. THIS John Paul Jones…

… not this John Paul Jones

On the Seas • When the English captain told him to surrender, Jones famously replied,

“Sir, I have not yet begun to fight!“ • Jones eventually won, convincing the French crown of the wisdom of aiding the colonies.

The War Moves South • By 1778, the British realized how hard the war was going to be. They decided on a hard-hitting offensive in the South. • They hoped loyalist support in the South would be of help. • They did not get the help they expected.

The War Moves South • Gen. Charles Cornwallis was in charge of British forces in the South. • The guerilla warfare used in the south caught the British off guard. Umm… that’s a gorilla, not a guerilla. (Technically, it’s a gorilla guerilla, or maybe even a guerilla gorilla, but I digress.)

The War Moves South • Attacks by American forces led by Nathanael Greene and Horatio Gates cost Cornwallis valuable time and supplies.

The Final Phase

• Cornwallis decides to go to Yorktown, Va., to receive new supplies and soldiers. • George Washington learns of Cornwallis’ plan and decides to attack. • American and French troops marched 200 miles in 15 days.

The Final Phase • At Washington’s request, a large French fleet of warships sailed up to the Chesapeake Bay. • Cornwallis was trapped by Washington, Rochambeau, Lafayette, and the French fleet, and was kept from receiving supplies).

The Final Phase • The 7,500 British troops were surrounded by 14,000 American and French soldiers. With supplies very low, Cornwallis surrendered to Washington in October 1781.

The Battle of Yorktown was the last major battle of the American Revolution.

Making peace

• John Adams, Ben Franklin & John Jay went to Paris to work out the terms of the treaty.

Terms and Conditions may apply • The treaty included the following: 1) Britain recognizes America as an independent nation

The Treaty of Paris of 1783 officially ended the Revolutionary War.

Terms and Conditions may apply • The treaty included the following: 2) America claims land from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River, from Canada to Spanish Florida

The Treaty of Paris of 1783 officially ended the Revolutionary War.

Terms and Conditions may apply • The treaty included the following: 3) Britain will withdraw all troops from America

The Treaty of Paris of 1783 officially ended the Revolutionary War.

Terms and Conditions may apply • The treaty included the following: 4) Americans may fish in waters off of Canada.

The Treaty of Paris of 1783 officially ended the Revolutionary War.

So… how did we pull it off? • How did America defeat the world’s strongest power? 1) Fought on their own land 2) Received help from other nations 3) The determination and spirit of the Patriots

Influences of the American Revolution • The American Revolution would later inspire the French Revolution (1789) as well as Haiti’s fight for independence from France.

The End

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