File - Texas History

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History
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Anglo American Colonization of Texas Chapter 8

Filibusters • Interest in Texas Grows among Anglo Americans – The United States won it’s independence from Great Britain (England) in 1783 – Americans began moving west to settle new lands

• Some of these new settlers were Filibusters – An adventurer who engages in a private rebellious activity in a foreign country



Phillip Nolan –

“Captured wild horses” in Texas and sold them in the U.S. – Spain grew suspicious of him and told him not to return in 1800 – He ignored the warning – In 1801 he was killed in a battle with Spanish soldiers near present day Waco

Filibusters • Neutral Ground Agreement – In 1800 France reclaimed the Louisiana Territory from Spain – In 1803 France sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States – To avoid conflicts over the new border Spain and the US compromised – The Agreement created a neutral zone between Arroyo Hondo River and Sabine River • Stopped border clashes between US and Spain • Created a shelter for outlaws



Gutiérrez-Magee Expedition – –



Bernardo Gutierrez was a supporter of Father Hidalgo Augustus Magee was an exUnited States soldier Together they invaded Texas, in 1812, with a small army and declared it independent of Spain •





They captured Nacogdoches, La Bahía, and San Antonio, but Magee died in the fighting The force was eventually attacked and defeated at the Battle of Medina by Spanish General Joaquin de Arredondo Nearly all where killed

Filibusters • Adams-Onís Treaty

• Pirates – Louis Michel Aury • Pirate who lived on Galveston Island • He agreed to help the few survivors of the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition attack Mexico – They were unsuccessful

– Jean Lafitte • While Aury was away Lafitte took over Galveston Island • He pirated Spanish and later American ships in the Gulf of Mexico • The US Navy eventually drove Lafitte from Texas

– In 1817 Spain was angry because the U.S. had entered Spanish Florida while fighting Native Americans – In 1819 the problem was resolved by the Adams-Onís Treaty • Spain gave Florida to the U.S. • Set the eastern border of Texas at the Sabine River and the northern at the Red River • U.S. gave up all claims to Texas

Filibusters • James Long – Led an expedition into Texas in 1819 to declare Texas independent from Spain • Long’s forces were defeated at Nacogdoches and a second unsuccessful attack against La Bahía ended in Long’s capture • Long was imprisoned in Mexico City and shot in 1822

– Long was the last to lead a major filibuster into Texas

• Jane Long – When James Long was killed he left behind a child and his pregnant wife – Jane survived the winter of 1821 alone • She fought off a Karankawa attack • She also gave birth to a daughter

– In the spring of 1822 Jane returned to the U.S. but she would return – Today she is known as the “Mother of Texas” because she was one of the first pioneer women in Texas History

• Moses Austin

Empresarios

– In the late 1700’s Moses Austin moved his family from the U.S. to George Morgan’s Colony in Spanish Missouri • He started a lead mine and became very wealthy

– In 1803 Missouri became part of the U.S. through the Louisiana Purchase – In 1819 a financial panic hit the U.S. and Moses Austin lost his fortune

– Moses Austin presented his idea to Texas Governor Antonio Martínez • He wanted to bring Anglo settlers to Spanish Texas • Governor Martínez said NO! – Spain did not trust Austin because of the recent Anglo Filibusters

– Austin prepared to return to the U.S. when he met and shared his idea with Baron de Bastrop who was an influential citizen of San Antonio • Baron de Bastrop arranged another meeting with Martínez – This time Martínez agreed to send Austin’s request to a higher authority

• Austin remembered the success he experienced living in Spanish – Expecting approval from Spain, Moses Territory and decided to try Austin began the long journey home starting over in Texas • On the way Moses Austin was robbed and – Moses Austin traveled to San developed pneumonia Antonio, Texas in 1820 • He made it home but was in bad shape

• Approval

Empresarios

– When Moses Austin arrived home he learned that Spain had given him permission to settle 300 Anglo families in Texas • Moses Austin would never bring settlers to Texas – The pneumonia he developed was killing him

• Moses Austin’s dying wish was for his son Stephen F Austin to carry out his dream

• Stephen F Austin – Was 27 years old and living in Arkansas, where he was pursuing a legal career – When he learned of his fathers dying wish he traveled to Texas to meet with Governor Martínez

– Governor Martínez legally transferred Moses Austin’s Land Grant to Stephen F Austin in 1821 – Next Stephen had to choose the best location for his colony • Austin chose a location between the Lavaca and San Jacinto Rivers – –

The area had good soil and lots of rain Stephen Austin’s first settlement on the Brazos River would be named San Felipe de Austin

– SFA then traveled to New Orleans to begin recruiting colonists • Austin required all colonists to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Pledge their loyalty to Spain Become Catholic Have good character Be able to provide for themselves Be willing to accept hard times

Empresarios • The Old Three Hundred – The name given to the original 300 families to move to Austin’s Colony • Jane Long • Jared Groce • Robert M Williamson – “Three-Legged Willie

• Cost

• Early Problems

United States

– Austin purchased a boat (The Lively) to transport colonist to Texas • The Lively brought the settlers to the Brazos instead of the Colorado River – Some frustrated colonists returned to the U.S.

– Drought – Attacks by the Karankawas

Texas

– The cost of land in the U.S. was • Despite these problems Austin’s $1.25 per acre Colony prospered – Austin offered land a 12.5¢ per • In 1822 Austin faced his biggest acre challenge yet 2 – Austin learned that Mexico had gained 3 • Land it’s independence from Spain 1 – Farmers receive 177 acres – Ranchers receive 4,428 acres

– Austin’s land grant had been issued by Spain not Mexico

Empresarios • Mexico City – Stephen F Austin made the 1,000 mile journey to Mexico City in hopes of securing his land grant • Austin would remain in Mexico City for an entire year – While there he learned to speak Spanish and gained the trust of Mexican officials

• Empresario Austin

• “The Father of Texas” – The nickname given to Stephen F Austin because he was the first and most successful empresario

• Other Empresarios – Green DeWitt • 2nd most important Empresario • Founded town of Gonzales in 1825

– Martin de Leon

– Stephen F Austin was made an • Settled Mexican families in Texas empresario (land agent) by the new • Founded town of Victoria in 1829 Mexican government • G.T.T. – Austin received additional land – Became a common sight in on doors – Austin’s colonist’s where across the U.S. in the 1820’s exempted from paying taxes • It stood for Gone To Texas – Colonists were given homestead – By 1830 the Texas population had rights grown to 20,000

Texas Population 20,000 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0

Population

1800

1830

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