French and Indian War - Madeira City Schools

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, World History
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French and Indian War

Objective #1 – Trace the growth of a North American rivalry between England and France through the colonial wars, including the Seven Years’ War and culminating in the Treaty of Paris (1763).

Objective #2 • Explain how the series of wars with France helped foster greater unity among the British colonies.

Objective #3 • Explain how the North American political and military events were affected by developments on the larger European stage.

Objective #4 • Explain how and why the French and Indian War became one of the causes of the American Revolution.

Anglo-French Rivalry • France established “New France” from Hudson Bay to Gulf of Mexico; Appalachian Mountains to Rocky Mts. • Jolliette and Marquette explored Mississippi and Missouri Rivers • Rene Robert de LaSalle made it to Gulf of Mexico (canoeing down Miss. R.) • England saw Catholic New France as a challenge to their mission and economic competition

North America in 1750

French and English Clash • King William’s War (1689-97) • Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) – Peace of Utrecht (1713)

• European war spilled into colonies • Native Americans mostly sided with French-fur trade, better treatment • Fighting meant higher taxes and inflation in colonies • Led to decades of salutary neglect

Westward Expansion • Despite population growth, English colonies confined to east of Appalachian Mountains • Need for more land • England coveted the Ohio Valley

The Ohio Valley in 1750s

Changes for Native Americans • European contact meant: – European weaponry and acculturation changed purpose of hunting (survival to riches) – Intensified tribal warfare – Increased frustration with colonists

French Goals for colonization • Connect Canada with Gulf of Mexico • Keep English colonists pinned against coast • “New France” still the goal • French set up military outposts in Ohio River Valley to halt English movement westward

Importance of New Orleans • Miss R. runs into Gulf of Mexico • Control of New Orleans is paramount • Growth of plantation slavery in N.O.

England needs Money • Glorious Revolution, war in Europe left England economically hurting • Want colonists to help pay fair share (mercantilism) • Tougher enforcement of Navigation Acts • Limits on foreign trade • Molasses Act of 1733

English colonists move west • Colonists begin moving westward • Challenge to French interests • 1754: Lt. Col. George Washington sent to expel French out of Ft. Duquesne • Loss meant unofficial war with France

Albany Plan of Union (1754) • Bring colonies together for defense • Only 7 of 13 attend • Tried to influence Natives to side with them • Bolster unity and defend itself against France • Albany Plan was unanimously approved by delegates • Individual colonies and Britain rejected the plan

1755: Ft. Duquesne, pt. II

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• General Edward Braddock (w/Washington) attacks and loses again • Braddock was commander of all English troops • Braddock dies • England formally declares war on France in 1756

Early in the war • France dominated first 2 years • Native Americans sided with France – Braddock’s death and England’s losses motivated Native Americans

• England attempted to unionize to fight with formation of Albany Congress

William Pitt • Becomes prime minister in 1757 • 40,000 troops sent to colonies • Goal: Conquer Canada and expel French • 1758: Capture St. Lawrence River • Iroquois form alliance with England

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Battle of Quebec (1759) • English captures Montreal in 1760 • Natives bailing on French • War effectively over by 1760 in colonies • Treaty of Paris (1763) ends war

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Treaty of Paris (1763) • France cedes Canada and all territory east of Mississippi River • France gave Louisiana to Spain to compensate them for their alliance during the war. • Spain gives Florida to England

North America in 1763

Proclamation of 1763 • Ottawa Chief Pontiac attacks English outposts in Detroit • Concern over control of colonists if they spread out • Proc. Of 1763: land west of Appalachian Mountains reserved for Native Americans • No settlers west of Appalachian Mountains

Results of French and Indian War • Strengthened colonial economy and confidence • Heavy taxes and human toll • War trained military and political leaders of American Revolution • No longer needed English protection • Barriers against unity begin to be removed • Colonists wanted rights of Englishmen but not the duties or responsibilities

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