Gender Roles in Sports Slideshow
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GENDER ROLES IN SPORTS By: Sarah Mills, Gil-Lyoung Kim, and Maddy Boire
QUOTE People say ‘how could a woman take a hit like that?’ But we run track, play basketball, baseball, lacrosse and have babies. We're just as physical as men. ~ Crystal Turpin, NY Sharks GM
Traditional gender roles portray women
as soft, submissive, passive, weak, or less-passionate.
Whereas men are strong, able-bodied,
aggressive, and competitive.
If female athletes seem to be violating
stereotypical gender roles, some people & media sources assume that they are lesbians.
Men are paid more than women in the
3 of the 5 top-paid female athletes in 2011
sexualized themselves in the media and spoke of it as a necessity when asked about it.
Modern Stereotypical Men’s Sports
Football Wrestling Hockey Boxing Golf Range Soccer Horse, bike, and motorcycle racing
Car racing Track and field Basketball Lacrosse Baseball Curling
Modern Stereotypical Women’s Sports
Gymnastics (and rhythmic gymnastics) Cheerleading Ballet (and other dances) Field hockey Figure skating Tennis
Badminton Croquet Horseback riding Swimming Synchronized swimming
Competitive sport that required aggression. Women began competing 4 decades later, in 1920. One of the few sports that allowed women to compete without any sexist issues. The sport evolved men and women.
Both genders have their advantages and disadvantages due to gender anatomy Both genders equally participate, but men have more media coverage. Women tend to learn quicker than men.
Was a male dominated sport. Considered a ‘manly sport’ because competing horses was incredibly dangerous compared to most sports (Still is today). Men didn’t want women in the sport, because they thought it would affect their image. Spectators stole saddles from women’s horses, scared them out of a race; resulted in women being afraid to compete because of the bullying and hate. Women were banned to compete in Eventing, because it was deemed “too dangerous.”
Female dominated sport and now considered a ‘female sport.’ American Horse Show Association ratio of women to men is 8:1.
Ski Jumping Then
Gian Franco Kasper, FIS president and member of the IOC, said he didn't think women should ski jump because the sport "seems not to be appropriate for ladies from a medical point of view.“ Ten female jumpers sued the Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC) for violating the ban on gender discrimination in Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Only sport in Olympics that banned women from competing. Currently, Lindsey Van holds the record among both men and women for the longest jump. First participation of women’s ski jumping will occur in 2014 Sochi olympics.
On Sportscenter, men's sports are covered more than women's at a 20 to 1 ratio Over various channels, women's sports took up 6.3% of the airtime whereas men's sports took up 91.4% In the media, female athletes are sexualized in order to be found appealing by a generally male audience Many female athletes are photographed with children or their boyfriends in order to dispel any rumors that they might be lesbians
The Olympics were originally a male-only event The first team of women in the Olympics was in 1900 – it consisted of 19 female athletes Some comparisons:
First male speed skating team recorded by the IOC was in 1924, women in 1960
Track and field: men started in 1896 and women started in 1928
Both sexes began badminton in 1992
Women’s ski-jumping is to be included for the first time ever at Sochi 2014, men’s ski jumping has long been included
Men's sports in the Olympics are much more viewed
Playing Unfair: The Media Image of the Female Athlete
Nike Ad: If You Let Me Play (1995)
Sex testing at the games began at the 1966 European Athletics Championships
Women's teams account for 37% of athletic program operating expenses
Women make up 57% of college undergraduates but receive only 42% of athletic participation opportunities Women account for only 42% of head coaches in women's sports and 2% in men’s Women hold 35% of all athletic administrative positions but only 19% of head administrative jobs in women's athletic programs
Only 8% of athletic directors are females in Division I schools
Female participation in high school sports has increased from 294,000 athletes in 1971 to 2.9 million in 2006 Female participation in intercollegiate sports has increased from 16,000 in 1970 to over 180,000 in 2005 The number of women's collegiate athletic teams has increased from an average of 2.5 to 8.45 per school
43% of men and 26% of women participating in sport. 1998
36% of men and 21% of women participating in sport. 2005
Women involved in amateur sport as coaches reached 882,000, 15% higher than in 1998. Over the same period, the number of male coaches dropped 9% to 874,000
How do you verify the eligibility of an athlete to compete in a sporting event that is limited by sex? In the Olympics an issue arose where it was said that males competed as women in order to win Intersex people also competed as women Sex tests to avoid this controversy But…This only increased the gender division in sports AND adds more controversy in terms of intersex, transgender and hermaphrodite athletes in gendered sports
Timeline 1900 – The first 19 women to compete in the modern Olympics Games in Paris, France, play in just three sports: tennis, golf, and croquet. 1918 – Eleanora Sears, after winning at polo, baseball, golf, field hockey, auto racing, swimming, tennis, yachting and speedboat racing, takes up squash.
1943 – The owner of the Chicago Cubs establishes the All-American Girls Softball League, the forerunner of the All-American Girls Baseball League (AAGBL). 1965 – The Women's Golf Open is televised nationally for the first time.
Timeline Cont’d. 1972 – Billie Jean King is named the Sportswoman of the Year by Sports Illustrated, the first time the award is given out. 1983 – Women's sports come under the NCAA. 1984 – Billie Jean King becomes the first woman head of a professional athletic league. 1991 – NCAA elects Judith Sweet as its first woman president. 1999 – Girl’s participation rates are rising faster than those of boys in almost every team sport. 2000 – According to the International Olympic Committee women will compete in the same number of team sports as men for the first time in the history of the Olympic Games.
Theories & Schools of Thought
Feminism: Believes that women can perform equally like men, even though doctors claim that women’s body were in jeopardy if they competed. Functionalism: Women need to be physically fit in order to be healthy. Women in sports encourage girls, men in sports encourage boys. Psychoanalytic Theory: Sports/physical activity releases endorphins; therefore, it is highly recommended.
So far we’ve realised the value of athletics for females:
Higher self esteem Less risk of depression Better academic performance Portrayed as sexual objects as opposed to competitive athletes Makes women seem non-competitive, weak and emotional Women receive less media coverage and therefore become disempowered
What it should be:
Gender neutral (no girls or boys teams) Instead of divided by gender, dive by skill level
Gender Differences: Sports Sexualizing Women. (2012, August 6). Mett Kopas | Sociology of Sexuality. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from http://mkopas.net/courses/soc287/2012/08/06/gender-differences-sports-sexualizingwomen/ Newell, A. (n.d.). Despite Women’s Strength, Stereotypes Still Nip Sports Performance – With No End in Sight. Cross-Country Ski, Biathlon, and Nordic Combined Racing, Training and News — FasterSkier — All Things Nordic. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from http://fasterskier.com/article/despite-womens-strength-stereotypes-still-nip-sportsperformance-with-no-end-in-sight/ Patchan, A., Urquia , M., & Kerr, J. (n.d.). Stereotypes - woMen in Sports. woMen in Sports Home. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from http://womeninsportz.weebly.com/stereotypes.html Starr, B. (n.d.). Gender Roles in Women's Sports. Masculinity and Gender Roles in Sports. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from http://ma Suddath, C. (n.d.). Why Can't Women Ski Jump?. Time. Retrieved October 19, 2013, from http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1963447,00.html Sports - Statistics on Women and Gender: Where and How to Find - Research Guides at University of Wisconsin-Madison. (n.d.). Home - Research Guides at University of WisconsinMadison . Retrieved October 21, 2013, from http://researchguides.library.wisc.edu/content.php?pid=107566&sid=814905
Works Cited Cont’d.
English, Jane. "Sex Equality in Sports." Philosophy and Public Affairs (1978)
Gantz, Walter, and Lawrence A. Wenner. "Men, Women, and Sports: Audience Experiences and Effects." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media (1991) Guttmann, Allen. Women's Sports: A History. 1st ed. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1991 Hall, M. A. (2002). The girl and the game: a history of women's sport in Canada. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press. Nelson, M. B., & Smith, L. (1998). Nike is a goddess: the history of women in sports. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. Rhode, Deborah L., and Christopher J. Walker. "Gender Equity in College Athletics: Women Coaches as a Case Study." Stanford Journal of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties (2008) Sabo, Don. "Women's Athletics and the Elimination of Men's Sports Programs." Journal of Sport and Social Issues. (1998)
http://onlyagame.wbur.org/2012/10/20/college-football-commentary (Football team)
http://www.bannernews.net/sports/?attachment_id=19 (Olympic rings)
http://readytoflyfilm.com/storage/post-images/RTF_banner_newFinal.jpg (Ski Jumping Banner) http://katiemortimore.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/IMG_7248banner.jpg (Equestrian Banner) http://www.texastwistersskiclub.com/images/snow_skiing_banner-TT.gif (Skiing Banner) http://blytheducation.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/08/Blyth_Academy_Programs_WhitbySports_674.jpg (Hockey Banner) http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/young-man-woman-walking-sports-outfits28590157.jpg (Men and Women)
Image Sites Cont’d
http://www.supplementen-voor-afvallen.nl/wpcontent/uploads/2011/05/men-and-womenexercising.jpg (Men and Women) http://images2.sina.com/english/sports/p/2008/0 821/U102P200T1D180637F10DT200808210727 47.jpg (Men running)