Gilded Age – Progressive Era
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Gilded Age – Progressive Era
Gilded Age • Gilded – cheap center covered w/ thin layer of gold (Mark Twain) • Gov’t followed Laissez – Faire policies • 1877-1900
Political Party Differences Republican • Gold based $ • High Tariffs • $ for Union soldiers • Aid to RR • Limits on Immigrants • Enforce Blue Laws
Democrat • Silver based $ • Lower Tariffs • High farm prices • Less aid to RR • Fewer Blue Laws
Lewes, Delaware: • It is illegal to wear pants that are “firm fitting” around the waist. Rehoboth Beach • No person shall change clothes in his or her vehicle. • No person shall pretend to sleep on a bench on the boardwalk. • Changing into or out of a bathing suit in a public restroom is prohibited. • Six-year-old girls may not run around without being fully clothed. • Alcohol may not be served in nightclubs if dancing is occurring on the premises at the same time.
Maine • It is illegal to stroll down the street and play a violin at the same time. • Advertisements may not be placed in cemeteries. North Carolina: • Elephants may not be used to plow cotton fields. • In cemeteries, no one may visit their departed loved ones late at night. • Women must have their bodies covered by at least 16 yards of cloth at all times. (Charlotte)
Presidents of the Gilded Age Rutherford Hayes • Republican • Ended Reconstruction • Reformed Spoils System
Presidents of the Gilded Age James A Garfield • Republican • Killed by a lawyer, Charles Guiteau
Presidents of the Gilded Age Chester Arthur • Republican • Created Civil Service Commission • Check qualifications
Presidents of the Gilded Age Grover Cleveland • Democrat • Gov’t control over RR
Presidents of the Gilded Age Benjamin Harrison • Republican • Sherman Anti Trust Act • Country begins a Depression
Presidents of the Gilded Age Grover Cleveland • Democrat • Stops Pullman Strike • Only Prez elected twice not in a row!
Presidents of the Gilded Age William McKinley • Republican • Increases US Tariffs • Supported the Gold Standard
Presidents of the Gilded Age William McKinley • Spanish – American War • Annexation of Hawaii • Killed during 2nd term – Leon Czolgosz
Progressive Era • 1890-1920 • A variety of reforms were enacted at all levels • Many Progressives believed that political action and reform were required for progress in society.
The Progressives: Their Goals and Beliefs
Progressives were not a single unified movement. Their efforts fell into four categories:
Moral Economic Political Reform Reform Reform
Social Reform Government should be given expanded powers so that it could become more active in improving the lives of its citizens.
Social Reform Examples 1.Women’s rights –Suffrage (voting) –Owning Property –Divorce –Clothing –Birth Control
Women’s Reform Leaders • Susan B Anthony – activist who worked towards gaining suffrage for women – Created National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
Women’s Reform Leaders • Florence Kelley – activist who worked towards gaining better working conditions
Women’s Reform Leaders • Alice Paul – radical activist who worked towards gaining suffrage for women – Created Congressional Union (CU): wanted an Amendment giving Women right to vote
• 1919 Congress passes the 19th Amendment granting women the right to vote.
Social Reform Examples 2. Protection of the Environment – Antiquities Act of 1906 » Allows President to designate National Monuments » Protect and Preserve Wildlife Areas
Social Reform Examples
3. Tenement Life
Over Crowding of the Cities Poor Living Conditions Unsanitary Conditions
Social Reform Examples 4. Unsafe working conditions and Child Labor – Fewer Hours – Higher Wages – Safer Factories – Unions
• The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory operated on the top 3 floors of the 10 story Asch Building in New York City
• In 1911, Unsafe working conditions lead to a deadly fire • Notice that the tallest ladders owned by the fire department only reach the 6th floor
• Rather than burn alive in the swift moving fire, many women jump from windows
• This is actually a photo of the building after the fire! Note how there is very little damage on the outside of the building
Eight months after the fire, a jury acquitted the factory owners, of any wrong doing. • Twenty-three individual civil suits were brought against the owners of the Asch building. On March 11, 1913, three years after the fire, the owners settled. They paid 75 dollars per life lost. • This tragedy led to a push for comprehensive safety and workers compensation laws.
Social Reform Examples 5. Safer Medicines – Restriction of Harmful Drugs – Proper Labeling – Government Approval of Future Drugs/Medicines
Patent Medicines • Medicines at the turn of the century did not require a prescription.
• Making exaggerated claims, they were used for a variety of ailments. • Many contained dangerous ingredients.
Cocaine was a common ingredient – even for children's medicines
Notice it's from the makers of Bayer Aspirin...
Social Reform Examples 6. Safer Food – Government Inspection of Food – Proper Labeling – Cleanliness
Have you read “The Jungle”? yuck.
The Jungle • Written by Upton Sinclair • Talks about the horrors of the meat packing industry
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 Created Food and Drug Administration, responsibility of testing all foods and drugs destined for human consumption The requirement for prescriptions from licensed physicians before a patient could purchase certain drugs The requirement of label warnings on habit-forming drugs.
Meat Inspection Act of 1906
All animals were required to pass an inspection by the FDA prior to slaughter
All carcasses were subject to a postmortem inspection
Cleanliness standards were established for slaughterhouses and processing plants.
Social Reform Examples 7. Civil Rights Movement African Americans were still fighting for basic rights guaranteed them in the Constitution
Problems African Americans fought Against • Voter Restrictions – Poll Tax – Pay a fee to vote – Literacy Test – prove you could read & write to vote – Grandfather Clause – exempts a group of people from obeying a law provided they met certain conditions before law was passed
Problems African Americans fought Against • Jim Crow Laws – System of laws that segregated public services by race
Problems African Americans fought Against • Plessy v. Ferguson – “Separate but Equal” – Supreme Court ruled against Homer Plessy saying segregation was legal as long as separate facilities were equal
Problems African Americans fought Against • Lynching – mob’s illegal seizure & execution of a person, usually by hanging
African American Leaders • Booker T. Washington – encouraged African Am. To become educated & learn a trade
African American Leaders • WEB DuBois – encouraged African Am. To attend college & become leaders; Also started NAACP
African American Leaders • NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People –Worked through courts to gain equal rights for African Am.
Moral Reform Many felt the Morals of our society were at the root of many turn of the century problems. - Moral Reformers sought to promote Moral Improvements: • • • • •
End Prostitution End Gambling End Drunkenness Education for Children Americanization and Restriction of Immigrants
Economic Reform Economic Reformers sought to curb the power and influence of wealthy interests.
» Monopolies » Trusts » Gap between Rich and Poor
Political Reform •
Governments should become more efficient and less corrupt so that they can competently handle an expanded role.
Political Reformers demanded Political Honesty and Accountability » » » » » »
Patronage/Spoils System Only Politicians can introduce bills Only Legislatures can pass laws Only Courts can remove corrupt officials Political Machines Bribery
Patronage • The giving of jobs or other political favors to supporters – even if they are not qualified • Even Presidents did it! …until…
Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE • Party leaders chose candidates for state & local offices
AFTER • Direct Primaries – Voters select their party’s candidates
Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE AFTER • State legislature • 17th Amendment – chose US Senators US Senators are elected by popular vote
Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE • Only members of state legislature can introduce bills
AFTER • Initiative – Voters can put bills before the legislation
Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE • Only legislatures pass laws
AFTER • Referendum – voters can vote on bills directly • DE voters control raising school taxes
Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE • Only courts or legislature can remove corrupt officials
AFTER • Recall – voters can remove elected officials from office
Progressive Political Reforms
MUCKRAKERS • Journalists that exposed turn of the century problems such as illegal business activities, putrid food, quack medicines, squalid living conditions, dangerous working conditions, etc.
• The uncovering of these awful truths led progressives to demand changes.
• Ida Tarbell • Jacob Riis •• History Lincoln • How of the Standard Oil Steffens • Upton Other Half
• Shame of Lives Sinclair SOME FAMOUS MUCKRAKERS • Exposed the • the Exposed Citiesthe • The Jungle ruthless practices shameful livingof big business •• Exposed the horrors conditions in Exposed Big City of the meatpacking city tenements Political industry Corruption
Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt • Republican • Youngest Prez • Took office after McKinley is shot
Progressive Presidents • Led the fight to dissolve 40 monopolies as a “trust buster“ • “Square Deal" promised a fair shake for the average citizen, including: – regulation of railroad rates and pure foods and drugs. – promotion of the conservation movement, emphasizing efficient use of natural resources.
Progressive Presidents William H Taft • Republican • Promised to continue TR’s ideas • Tried but lacked TR’s energy
Progressive Presidents • Initiated 80 antitrust suits • Submitted to the states amendments for a Federal income tax and the direct election of Senators.
Progressive Presidents • Progressive Republicans are upset w/ Taft & want TR back • TR loses in the primaries so he creates his own political party • Progressive Party aka Bull Moose Party
Election of 1912 • Rep – William Taft • Dem – Woodrow Wilson • Prog – Teddy Roosevelt
Wilson Wins!!!! Candidate
Progressive Presidents Woodrow Wilson • Democrat • Continued Progressivism • Prez during WWI
Progressive Presidents Clayton Antitrust Act • Strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 • Spelled out specific activities businesses could NOT do • Aide to Union Strikes now Legal!
Progressive Presidents Federal Reserve System • Central bank of the US • Divided nation into 12 regions each w/ its own Federal Reserve Bank
Progressive Presidents Federal Reserve System • Regulates Amount of money in circulation • Sets interest rates • Regulates how much a bank can lend
Progressive Presidents • 16th Amendment – Congress can levy income taxes • 17th Amendment – Direct Election of Senators • 18th Amendment – Prohibition of Alcohol • 19th Amendment – Women’s Suffrage