History of Ancient Middle East

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies, Islam
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History of Ancient Middle East

Who lives here? Share common history, but not a common culture Majority practice Islam: Sunni (followed elected leader – chosen in a shura) Shiite (followed Ali, cousin of Muhammad)

(Israel is the exception – What do they practice?) There are also Christian communities Religious identity is closely tied to social status

Geography DRY – mostly desert Mountain valley, river valleys and oases

Landforms Sahara desert – world’s largest hot desert Atlas mountains in North-west Africa

Desertification -Process by which arable land becomes desert -Overgrazing strips land of plant life and exposes soil

Mountains Often they block moisture coming in off of the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas

Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, and Dardanelles have strategic importance… can you guess why?

Irrigation Not much arable land – Irrigation needed to sustain agriculture and life in many areas in the Middle East Problem: Too much salt in the soil is drawn up with water, when water evaporates it destroys soil

Rivers Nile – the lifeline of Egypt 96% of Egypt is desert, practically unlivable Floods regularly

Tigris & Euphrates River valley formed basis for first civilization

Industry Cash crops – ie: cotton, tobacco on coastal regions Traditional rug making Illiteracy stands in the way of wide-spread industrial success Service Industry – banking, tourism, and communications Desalination – trying to solve water shortage OIL

OPEC Venezuela joined with several Middle Eastern states to form the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Operates as a cartel – members work together to limit competition and maintain prices

Fertile Crescent Heavier rainfall and access to water Extends along Mediterranean Coastal plain in Israel, through Lebanon and Syria, down into northern Iraq

Ancient civilizations began here – Mesopotamia in 4,000B.C.

Civilizations of the Middle East In the following slides, you will see some of the civilizations that have occupied portions of the Middle East through time. Accomplishments are listed with each civilization.

After looking at the civilizations and reading the text book pages, come up with one question concerning the History of the Middle East that you think should appear on a future test. Also, choose which civilization you believe had the biggest impact on this region and why

Egyptians 5,000 BC Developed trade of crafts

Pharaoh – ruled as god-king Hieroglyphics

Amazing architecture, result of concern with life after death

Sumerians Polytheistic, built Ziggurats as temples to the gods, as well as administrative centers Developed Cuneiform to keep records Warfare broke out over control of land and water

Babylonians Empire in T&E river valley Hammurabi – 1st ever public law code, didn’t create equality but prevented the strong from destroying the weak This is where the saying “an eye for an eye comes from”…literally

Hittites, Lydians, Phoenicians Hittites used iron – (stronger metal than what they had before, but brittle) Lydians 1st to use coined $ Phoenicians lived in Lebanon, traders and navigators, developed alphabet

Hebrews Adopted idea of monotheism One God - Yaweh Old Testament 10 commandments God demands obedience and in turn, protects his people

Diaspora – the forced removal of Jews from their homeland Hebrews migrated from Palestine due to famine and were enslaved in Egypt – freed by Moses according to Bible Settled in Canaan and set up kingdom of Israel Israel split up by Assyrians and Babylonians – many Jews were exiled, this was the first Diaspora (586 BC)

Persians Conquered huge empire by 500 BC Built roads, “pony express” communication system Lots of cultural diffusion

Greeks and Romans Alexander conquers Persia, tried to unite the Greek and Middle Eastern worlds Greek education and culture is spread through the Middle East – more cultural diffusion Romans exerted control over Egypt, Syria and Turkey

Byzantine Rome divided, Constantinople became center of Christianity in Byzantine Empire (Eastern Rome) Fell to Ottoman Turks

Crusades 200 years of warfare Fought for control of the Holy Land (Palestine) Crusaders robbed land and goods, killed Muslims and Jews

Ottomans Suleiman the Magnificent Ruled from 15th to 18th century

Turks from Turkey Good soldiers and administrators, unified most of the Middle East, North Africa and Southeastern Europe under their control Ghazis – warriors who defended Islam in the region

Built mosques, created literature, became powerful empire Ruled by a Sultan Education, religious matters and laws controlled by mullahs 18th century corruption in govt. and loss of trade routes lead to decline in empire’s land and power

Napoleon, the Brits and the Russians Beginning of European infiltration into M.E. After he defeated Egypt, the British came to the defense of Ottomans – shows them as superior and gave them voice in M.E. affairs Brits also defend Turkey from Russia

Nationalism on the Arabian Peninsula Wahhabis – Anti-Turkish, AntiWestern Muslim movement Angry @ corruption of Ottoman govt. and western reforms Urged strict puritanical devotion to Islam

Helped to establish Saudi Arabia

WWI France and Britain take parts of the M.E. in the 1800s. British occupy Egypt and control canal Broken promises of Europeans after the war is won create bitterness Brits had promised M.E. countries independence if they helped After victory, Lebanon and Syria went to France while the British took over Iraq, Palestine, and Transjordan, (as mandates) Growth of nationalism results from resentment of European rule and manipulation – demands for independence grow

Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916

Nationalism Mass rallies, strikes and boycotts Arabs engaged in guerilla warfare in Palestine and violent outbursts occur in occupied countries Saudi Arabia and Iraq gain independence, Syria and Lebanon controlled by French until WWII

Opportunity Knocks Britain defends its interests in Egypt in WWII from Italian dictator Mussolini Arabs in the rest of occupied countries try to ally with Axis powers Try to seize opportunity to be rid of European domination

Map of History of Empires http://www.mapsofwar.com/images/E MPIRE17.swf Describe one possible result of the information you gather from the map.

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