Industrial Rev PPT - Buncombe County Schools

May 10, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
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Laissez-Faire Boom or Bust?

Textile Inventions •

1733 - Flying shuttle invented by John Kay - an improvement to looms that enabled weavers to weave faster. 1742 - Cotton mills were first opened in England. 1764 - Spinning jenny invented by James Hargreaves - the first machine to improve upon the spinning wheel. 1764 - Water frame invented by Richard Arkwright - the first powered textile machine. 1769 - Arkwright patented the water frame. 1770 - Hargreaves patented the Spinning Jenny. 1773 - The first all-cotton textiles were produced in factories. 1779 - Crompton invented the spinning mule that allowed for greater control over the weaving process. 1785 - Cartwright patented the power loom. It was improved upon by William Horrocks, known for his invention of the variable speed batton in 1813. 1787 - Cotton goods production had increased 10 fold since 1770. 1789 - Samuel Slater brought textile machinery design to the US. 1790 - Arkwright built the first steam powered textile factory in Nottingham, England. 1792 - Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin - a machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fibre. 1804 - Joseph Marie Jacquard invented the Jacquard Loom that weaved complex designs. Jacquard invented a way of automatically controlling the warp and weft threads on a silk loom by recording patterns of holes in a string of cards. 1813 - William Horrocks invented the variable speed batton (for an improved power loom). 1856 - William Perkin invented the first synthetic dye

Textile Inventions

Flying shuttle

Spinning Jenny

With the arrival of these inventions, yarn had effectively become industrialized. By 1812, the cost of making cotton yarn had dropped by nine-tenths and the number of workers needed to turn wool into yarn had been reduced by four-fifths. The addition of these inventions to the work force moved the stress from the production to the supply of raw cotton. Within just a 35 year period, more than 100,000 power looms with 9,330,000 spindles were put into service in England and Scotland Britain took advantage of the Americas' available new cotton, using it to help absorb the demand. By 1830, the importation of raw cotton had increased to eight times its past rate and half of Britain's exports were refined cotton. At this point, the demand was high enough to provide inspiration for what is probably the most well known invention of the Revolution: the steam engine.

Thomas Newcomen built a steam engine to pump water from the Cornish tin mines. His engines were also used in the 18th century to increase the supply of drinking water. •James Watt improved on this design setting the stage for the Industrial Revolution in Britain, Europe, the U.S. and the world. •Patented in 1769

Steamboat • In 1807, Robert Fulton used steam power to create the first steamboat, an invention that would change the way and the speed in which materials could be moved between the colonies of Britain. In the beginning, the ship was more expensive to build and operate than sailing vessels, but the steamship had some advantages. It could take off under its own power and it was more steadfast in storms

Steam Trains

Finally, in 1814, Stephenson used the steam engine to create a steam powered train, which would eventually allow increased communication and trade between places before deemed too far. Soon, the steam-powered train had become an icon of success throughout the world

The Rocket Modern Railway Age • the most important of which was the Liverpool and Manchester line of 1830 • ability to haul its train at over 30 miles per hour • set the standard for locomotive design • A railway boom and mania followed during the 1840s

Lithograph by Currier & Ives depicts four of the major inventions of the nineteenth century

Can you name them?

Coal and Clay mining in the Rochdale Area - Britain living/libraries.asp?url=...

Child labor in mines, 19th century

It was cheaper to hire children than risk mules, horses in the mines. Why?

Child Labor

A New Age • The Great Exhibition of 1851 • How did this New Age show consumerism?

The advertisement of Thomas Wood An Advertisement for a Cake Maker •What clues can you find about British society in this advertisement? •Gender •Work •Class systems

•Think Victorian values urce_workshop_02.shtml

The advertisements of Frederick Willey • What clues are available in this advertisement? ce_workshop_03.shtml


A representation of the Great Exhibition of 1851 held at the Crystal Palace _invention_1.shtml?site=history_victorianlj_industry in Hyde Park, London

Changes in Occupational Structure in the Victorian Age

Death in the city

“Large towns were... desperately unhealthy, with levels of death at a level not seen since the Black Death.”

• The census of 1851 recorded half of the population of Britain as living in towns • towns offered a better chance of work and higher wages than the countryside • A baby born in a large town with a population of more than 100,000 in the 1820s might expect to live to 35; in the 1830s, life expectancy was down to miserable 29. rianlj_sour

Packing in the People •Cities became more densely packed •In Liverpool, in the early 1840s, perhaps ten per cent lived in cellars. •commissioners appointed to enquire into the cholera outbreak in Newcastleupon-Tyne found that about 50 per cent of families had only a single room •Most houses did not have an independent water supply or privy, and what was shared was often the responsibility of no one •low life expectancy of babies born into such conditions is easily explained

Paradox of Economic Growth •Conditions did improve from the 1870s •Public Health Act of 1875 required local authorities to implement building regulations •At the same time, the income of most working class people started to rise at an unprecedented rate

•A prosperous economy with factories and houses pumping smoke into the air contributed to a high death rate from respiratory diseases

King Smoke (Punch, 1854)

•The courts were clear that they should not penalise industrialists for causing nuisances with their fumes, for the result would simply be to destroy the industry of many towns


A Punch cartoon from 1847. Note that the boy has fallen through the gap between 'voluntary education' and 'state education'

• In 1833, Parliament voted the first grant to support education for the poor • 1870 Education Act, which developed local board schools • Compulsory elementary education followed in 1881 and the opportunity for almost all children to receive free elementary education without payment of any fees was provided by 1891 7.shtml?site=history_victorianlj_laissez

The First Nanny State? • Despite the belief that state intervention worked against individual self-reliance this was a period of increasing state intervention.

Victorian advertisements at Charing Cross Sation, 1874 ml?site=history_victorianlj_laissez

A Possible Answer The 19th Century state intervened to prevent those greater evils which might threaten the efficiency of a free-trade economy and not to provide positive benefits for its citizens. Also, the burden of provision rested overwhelmingly with local authorities and not with central government.

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