Language Development: Infancy

January 9, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Psychology, Developmental Psychology
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Language Development: General Development and Infancy

What are speech and language?  Speech

and language are tools that humans use to communicate or share thoughts, ideas, and emotions.

 Language

is the set of rules, shared by the individuals who are communicating, that allows them to exchange those thoughts, ideas, or emotions.

What are speech and language?  Speech

is talking, one way that a language can be expressed.

 Language

may also be expressed through writing, signing, or even gestures in the case of people who have neurological disorders and may depend upon eye blinks or mouth movements to communicate.

Rules of Language While there are many languages in the world, each includes its own set of rules for:  phonology (phonemes or speech sounds or, in the case of signed language, handshapes),  morphology (word formation),  syntax (sentence formation),  semantics (word and sentence meaning),  prosody (intonation and rhythm of speech), and  pragmatics (effective use of language).

Theories of Language Development  Learning

theory (Behaviorist)  B.F. Skinner

 views

language acquisition as a result of classical conditioning.

 The

child imitates what he hears and is rewarded when he makes a sound that sounds to others like a real word.

Theories of Language Development  The

structural-innatist theory.  Noam Chomsky

 It

is felt there is a human biological need to develop rule systems for language.

 The

structural-innatists believe in a built-in language device that helps humans acquire language.

Theories of Language Development Cognitive -Transactional Theory  Piaget  Vygotsky  Language acquisition develops from basic social and emotional drives.  Language is learned as a means of relating to people. Others provide social and psychological supports that enable the child to be an effective communicator.  Vygotsky suggested that children’s meaningful social exchanges prepare them for uniting thought and speech into “verbal thought.” 

Theories of Language Development  Maturational-Normative  Arnold


Gesell  Children are primarily the product of genetic inheritance, and environmental influences are secondary.  Children are seen as moving from one predictable stage to another with “readiness” as the precursor to of learning.

Theories of Language Development  The

interactionist position is that there is an interchange between biological and environmental factors.

Many factors affect the rate at which a child develops language 

Sometimes language development slows down while a child is learning other skills, such as standing or walking.

The amount and kind of language the child hears may also affect the rate of language development.

The rate of language development may also be affected by how people respond to the child.

How do speech and language normally develop?  The

most intensive period of speech and language development for humans is during the first three years of life, a period when the brain is developing and maturing.

 These

skills appear to develop best in a world that is rich with sounds, sights, and consistent exposure to the speech and language of others.

How do speech and language normally develop?  "critical


 the

developing brain is best able to absorb a language, any language, during this period.

 The

ability to learn a language will be more difficult, and perhaps less efficient or effective, if these critical periods are allowed to pass without early exposure to a language

How do speech and language normally develop? 

The beginning signs of communication

The newborn also begins to recognize important sounds in his or her environment.

As they grow, infants begin to sort out the speech sounds (phonemes) or building blocks that compose the words of their language. 

Research has shown that by six months of age, most children recognize the basic sounds of their native language.

How do speech and language normally develop? As the speech mechanism (jaw, lips, and tongue) and voice mature, an infant is able to make controlled sound.  Cooing 

Babbling 

a quiet, pleasant, repetitive vocalization. repetitive syllables such as "ba, ba, ba" or "da, da, da."

Jargon 

has the tone and cadence of human speech but does not contain real words.

How do speech and language normally develop?  By

the end of their first year, most children have mastered the ability to say a few simple words.

 Children

are most likely unaware of the meaning of their first words, but soon learn the power of those words as others respond to them.

Stages of Communication and Language Development  The

foundations of language the child will soon master and use has its base in the words and gestures within interactions with parents.

 The

infant has the ability to listen and gradually understand the sounds, meaning and rule system inherent in language.

Stages of Communication and Language Development Within the first year the infant both understands words and phrases and begins to speak his first word.  Crying  Sounds  Smiling and laughing  Syllables  Babbling  Infant signaling  Understanding  Receptive language  Simple words  Double syllables  Nouns  Objects  Holophrases

Crying 

From birth until about 4 months of age, this communication consists mainly of reflexive crying to express feelings (Fitzpatrick, 2002).

Continue speaking with the baby: mirroring sounds and early words, responding to her communication, and answering her cries

The best strategy at this level is understanding her cries and expressing the desired response.

Showing interest and attending to the baby’s needs shows that the communication is working and builds the attachment and trust between child and caregiver.

Cooing 

Repetition of vowel sounds.

Seems to be related to a child’s comfort and satisfaction.

Sounds are relaxed, low pitched, and gurgling vowel sounds, made in an open mouth way.

Babbling Early random sound making at the age of around 4 to 6 months  Before speaking words, babies practice the sounds, intonations and rhythms of language (Fitzpatrick, 2002).  Infants the world over babble sounds they have not heard and will not use in their native language.  Peak is 9-12 months 

Signaling 

During the latter part of the first year alert caregivers will notice hand and body positions that suggest the child is attempting communication.

As time progresses, more and more infant body signaling takes place.

Signals are used over and over and a type of sign language communication emerges.

Some common gestures of babyhood GESTURE


allows food to run out of mouth

satisfied or not hungry



pushes nipple from mouth with tongue

satisfied or not hungry

pushes object away

does not want it

reaches out for object

wants to have it handed to him

reaches out to person

wants to be picked up

smacks lips or ejects tongue


smiles and holds out arms

wants to be picked up

sneezes excessively

wet and cold

squirms and trembles


squirms, wiggles, and cries during dressing or bathing

resents restriction on activities

turns head from nipple

satisfied or not hungry

Sign Language 

All babies use their hands to communicate before they can speak

Research shows that babies can learn to communicate using sign language as early as ten months old

You can begin signing with a baby at any time and the baby is likely to show a great deal of interest in your hand movements from a very young age.

The motor skills necessary for babies to sign back to you mature at around 10 months of age.

Signing with your baby is a bridge to speech. 

You will want to maintain a strong connection between the sign and the word so that once the baby learns to speak she will have already learned that signs and words are interchangeable.

You will also want to give the baby the opportunity to sign or speak a given word as she grows older and is ready to speak

Understanding  Most

babies get some idea of the meaning of a few words at about 6-9 mos.

 Language

at this stage is passive for he or she primarily receives (or is receptive)

This infant has learned to respond to the adult's pointing gestures.

First words  Around

 Range

12 months is 9-16m

 Generally

proper names or nouns— foods, animals, people, toys

An attuned adult:  

nurtures infant curiosity. uses words and gestures in communication. builds a sign language relationship with infants. tries to judge the intensity of infants' emotions. offers a choice of child actions and explorations within safe limits.

 

responds to and promotes reciprocal communication. pairs words with actions and objects. observes the direction of infants' gazes for clues to infants' moment to moment interests. continues to be at eye level when possible. expects and recognizes invented words.

An attuned adult: 

encourages first word use by repeating word back to child and connecting the child's word to objects or actions as appropriate. guesses frequently about a child's meaning in communication. works toward a child's success at using words to fulfill his desires, needs, and interests.

Holophrastic Stage  About

one year of age

 One

word sentences

 One

word can have many meanings

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