Lecture

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Law, Criminal Justice
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If the Union must be dissolved slavery is precisely the question upon which it ought to break John Quincy Adams

Background of Abolitionists

MishMosh of Beliefs • Reformers. – Saw slavery as a black mark on American society and a limiting our growth. – Mostly came from the middle-class, who were already reforming prisons, education, equality for women, mental health, government, and services for the poor.

Susan B. Anthony http://ncwhs.oah.org/images/YoungSusanB.jpg

• Moral grounds. – Declaration of Independence declared all people are created equal. – The Bible preaches equality. – A byproduct of the Second Great Awakening and Charles Finney. Charles Finney http://demo.lutherproductions.com/historytutor/basic /modern/people/images/Finney.jpg

Background of Abolitionists

Why Abolition?

• Political reasons.

– Democrats protested the denial of political and civil rights to blacks. – By 1805, all of the Northern states had either outlawed slavery or set out gradual emancipation. – Northerners believed that the slave South was gaining power and trying to push north of the Missouri Compromise line.

Abolitionist Opinions

Option 1: Colonization

• Benjamin Lundy. – Quaker publisher, tried to persuade Southerners to free their slaves. – Once freed, he explored the possibility of colonization in Canada or Haiti.

Abolitionist Opinions

Option 2: Violent Uprising Former Slaves: David Walker

• Born to freed slaves, moved to Massachusetts • David Walker’s Appeal. – A pamphlet that urged African-Americans to use violent means, if necessary, to win their freedom. – Known as the “diabolical pamphlet” throughout the South.

David Walker http://cache.eb.com/eb/thumb?id=78425

Abolitionist Opinions

Option 3: Work within the System

Former Slaves: Frederick Douglass • Background. – Most well-known escaped slave. He learned to read and write and mastered a trade while a slave. – Earned enough money from lectures and writing to send to his former master and legally purchase his freedom.

• Became part of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society.

--He believed freedom required not only emancipation, but also full social and economic equality.

• Changing opinions. – Originally wanted emancipation by violent means. – Late 1840s, decides to break with the “radical abolitionists.” • Believed that the Constitution needed to be upheld. • If it was not, then emancipation meant nothing because blacks would not be treated as equals.

– Destroy slavery by working within the system.

Abolitionist Opinions Option 4: Free them now, to heck with the consequences William Lloyd Garrison

• Assistant of Benjamin Lundy, would become a leading abolitionist. – Became leader of the radical view. – Wanted the immediate emancipation of slaves. – Did not care about the political, social, and economic consequences. – Refused to engage in political activity to end slavery. – Compromises have failed in the past. – Laws made to protect slavery were illegal under God’s law. – Prepared to destroy the Union to gain their ends.

• The Liberator. – Key abolitionist newspaper. – Extremely controversial in both the North and the South. – Would be banned in the South. – Set out the reasons for abolition in a graphic manner.

William Lloyd Garrison http://www.olemiss.edu/courses/his105/images/liberator.jpg

• Importance of Garrison. – Did not have many followers, but opened up new views on abolition. – Abolition was not a reform movement, but a revolution. – Achieving racial equality, not just ending slavery, will lead to the true goal: full justice for blacks.

• Saw blacks as true equals. • Supported the efforts of female abolitionists and the women’s rights movement.

Abolitionist Opinions

Option 5: Moderate Approach—one step at a time • Origins & beliefs. – Broke with Garrison in 1840. – “Immediate emancipation… gradually achieved” through political activity. – Did not want female abolitionists to take an active role. • Believed that slavery was enough of an issue to antagonize people. • Would lose support.

• Created the Liberty Party. – Would be one of the numerous “third parties” created to fight for the end of slavery.

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