Long term memory & Memory errors

January 9, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Psychology, Cognitive Psychology
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How does information become store in LTM ? • Encoding : the process of acquiring information and transferring it into memory – Coding : the form with which information is represented

• Retrieval : the process of transferring information from LTM back into working memory 1

Chapter summery 10 • The process of acquiring information and transferring it into memory is called encoding. • Encoding therefore refers to the process used to get information into LTM.

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Encoding & Rehearsal Rehearsal :repeating it over and over 1. Maintenance rehearsal : helps maintain information in memory

2. Elaborative rehearsal : transferring information into LTM 3

Maintenance rehearsal • When you repeat a phone number you just looked up in the phone book – Repeating a number without any consideration of meaning or making connections with other information

• Rehearsal can keep information in working memory • Then forgetting it right after you place the call 4

Elaborative rehearsal • think about the meaning of an item • make connections between the item and something you know • An effective way of transferring information into LTM 5

Chapter summery 11 • Some mechanisms of encoding are more effective than others in transferring information into LTM. – Maintenance rehearsal helps maintain information in STM but is not an effective way of transferring information into LTM.

– Elaborative rehearsal is a good way to establish LTM. 6

Levels-of-processing theory Idea of LOP ( levels-of-processing ) : 1972 Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart – Depend on how information is encoded

Memory depends on how information is programmed (encoded) into the mind 7

Remembering lists Part 1 : counting the number of vowels • Cover up the list below : chair, mathematics, elephant, lamp, car, elevator, thoughtful, cactus

• Uncover each word by one • Count the number of vowels in each word • Go right on to the next one 8

Remembering lists Part 1 : counting the number of vowels • Now cover the list • Count backward by 3’s from 100 (100,97,94,91,88,85,82,79,76) • When you get to 76 • Write down the words you remember 9

Remembering lists Part 2 : visualizing an item’s function • Cover the list below Umbrella, exercise, forgiveness, rock, hamburger, sunlight, coffee, bottle

• Uncover each word one by one • Visualize how useful the item might be if you were stranded on uninhabited island 10

Remembering lists Part 2 : visualizing an item’s function • Cover the list • Count backward by 3’s from 99 (99,96,93,90,87,84,81,78,75) • When you reach 75 • Write down the word you remember 11

Remembering lists Which procedure resulted in better memory? 1. Counting the number of vowels 2. Visualizing an item’s function : better – a meaningful connection has been made between an item and something else

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levels-of-processing Idea of LOP : Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart 1972 • Memory depends on the depth of processing that an item receives –Shallow processing –Deep processing 13

Shallow processing • Focused on physical features such as – the number of vowels in a word – Whether the word is printed in lowercase or capital letters

• Repeated to keep it in memory • But without considering its meaning or its connection 14

Deep processing • Focusing on an item’s meaning – Considering how an item might be useful in a particular situation – Creating an image of the item in relation to another item

• Involves close attention to meaning • Relating it to something else 15

Depth of processing Shallow processing : involves little attention to meaning

– Occurs during maintenance rehearsal

Deep processing : involves close attention to meaning

– Occurs during elaborative rehearsal 16

Levels-of-Processing theory Prediction of better memory • Deep processing better than shallow processing • Elaborative rehearsal deeper than maintenance rehearsal 17

Varying depth of processing Fergus Craik and Endel Tulving 1975 • How depth of processing can be varied by asking different kinds of questions about a word » A question is presented » Followed by a word » Then the participant’s response (memory test)

– Shallow processing : asking question about the word physical characteristics

– Deeper processing : asking the word’s sound – Deepest processing : a task that involves the word’s meaning 18

Varying depth of processing Shallow processing : a question about physical features of the word • Q : Is the word printed in capital letters ? • Word : bird

Deeper processing : a question about rhyming • Q : Does the word rhyme with train ? • Word : pain

Deepest processing : a fill-in-blanks question • Q : Does the word fit into the sentence “ He saw a ________ on the street ” ? • Word : car

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Varying depth of processing

Deeper processing is associated with better memory20

Chapter summery 12 Levels of processing theory states that memory depends on how information is encoded or programmed into the mind. • According to this theory, shallow processing is not as effective as deep processing.

• An experiment by Craik and Tulving showed that memory was better following deep processing than following shallow processing. 21

Transfer-appropriate processing Memory performance is enhanced if • type of task at encoding matches the type of task at retrieval Memory performance is sometimes determined not by depth of processing but by the relationship between

how information is encoded and how it is retrieved later 22

Transfer-appropriate processing Donald Morris and coworkers 1977 • Participants were presented with 32 sentences during the encoding part of the experiment •

Tasks during encoding 1. The meaning task 2. The rhyming task 23

Transfer-appropriate processing Meaning-task encoding – Participants heard fill-in-the-blanks sentences in which the word blank replaced the target word – Participants heard the target word • Participants had to response “ yes ” if they thought it fit into the sentence

• Participants had to response “ no ” if they thought it didn’t fit into the sentence 24

Transfer-appropriate processing Meaning-task encoding “ The blank rode the bicycle ” – Target word :

boy

– Answer : would be “ yes ”

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Transfer-appropriate processing Rhyming-task encoding – Participants heard a statement involving rhyming, in which the word blank replaced the target word – Participants heard the target word • Participants had to respond “ yes ” if the statement was correct • Participants had to respond “ no ” if the statement was not correct 26

Transfer-appropriate processing Rhyming-task encoding “ Blank rhymes with toy ” – Target word : boy

– Answer : would be “ yes ”

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Transfer-appropriate processing Donald Morris and coworkers 1977 • Encoding task ( same 32 target words ) 1. meaning group : 32 target words 2. rhyming group : 32 target words



Retrieval task ( both groups test both ) 1. Standard recognition test in retrieval 2. Rhyming recognition test in retrieval 28

Transfer-appropriate processing Standard recognition test in retrieval – Both groups presented with the 32 same target word and 32 new words – Indicate whether a word had been one of the target words during acquisition ? – Result : meaning-task encoding group better » Meaning task would result in deeper processing than rhyming task

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Transfer-appropriate processing Rhyming recognition test in retrieval – Both groups presented with the 32 same target word and 32 new words – Indicate whether each word rhymed with one of the words they had heard during acquisition ? – Results : rhyming-task encoding group better » Meaning task would result in deeper processing than rhyming task

» LOP cannot explained this results

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Transfer-appropriate processing

How well the conditions at encoding and retrieval match The key to the better performance of the rhyming group was transfer-appropriate processing both encoding and retrieval were based on sound 31

Chapter summery 13 • Transfer appropriate processing refer to the finding that memory performance is enhanced when the type of coding that occurs during acquisition matches the type of retrieval that occurs during a memory test. • The result of an experiment by Morris support this idea. 32

Additional factors that aid encoding • Forming connections with other information

• Generating information • Organizing information

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Forming connections with other •

Task : Remembering the word chicken Which sentence do you think would result in the best memory ? ( A = 2 ) 1. She cooked the chicken 2. The great bird swooped down and carried off the struggling chicken

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Forming connections with other Craik and Tulving 1975 • Memory is much better when the word is presented within the complex sentence • Complex sentence creates more connections between the word to be remembered and other things • These other things act as cues that help us retrieve the word 35

Forming connections with other Gordon Bower and David Winzenz 1970 • Imagery can help create connections – They presented a list of 15 pairs of nouns, such as boat and tree, to participants for 5 seconds each – Repetition group : silently repeat the pairs – Imagery group : form the mental picture in which the two items were interacting

– Recall all – Results : imagery group superior 36

Imagery can help create connections Repetition group : silently repeat the pairs Imagery group : form the mental picture in which the two items were interacting

Results : imagery group superior

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Forming connections with other T.B. Rogers and coworkers 1979 • Self-reference effect Memory is better if you are asked to relate a word to yourself • Participants were presented with a cue question and then a word ( shy , outgoing ) – Cue question : » Is the word long ? » Does the word describe you ?

• • • •

Apply the cue question to the word Answer yes or no Recall for the word that resulted in a yes response Results : better memory for word that describe themselves 38

Self-reference effect

Memory is better if you are asked to relate a word to yourself 39

Self-reference effect Retrieval cues • The self provides information that become linked to the word and that make it easier to remember later Deeper processing • Word describes you results in deeper processing 40

Generating information Generation effect : •

Generating material yourself, rather than passively receiving it, enhances learning and retention.

Norman Slameka and Peter Graf 1978 •

Participants study a list of word pair in two different ways 1. Read group : read these pairs of related words •

King-crown , horse-saddle , lamp-shade

2. Generate group : fill in the blank with a word that is related to the first word. ( king-cr___ , horse-sa___ , lamp-sh___ , etc. ) 41

Generating information Norman Slameka and Peter Graf 1978 • After study task • Presented with the first word in each pair • Indicate the word that went with it • Results : generate group learned 28% more word pair than read group 42

Organizing information The memory system uses organization to access information efficiently. • Reading a list – Get paper and pen ready – Read the following words » Apple, desk, shoe, sofa, plum, chair, cherry, coat, lamp, pants, grape, hat, melon, table, gloves

– Then cover them and write them down as many as possible 43

Organizing information • Look at the list you created • Notice whether similar items are group together » Apple, cherry, plum » Shoe, coat, pants

– Remembering words in a particular category may serve as a retrieval cue for other words in that category

• Create a recall list that is more organized than the original list that you read 44

Organizing information Gordon Bower and coworkers 1969 • Presenting material to be learned in a “tree” which organized a number of words according to categories

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Organizing information Gordon Bower and coworkers 1969 Organized 4 trees • Participants studies trees for minerals , animals , clothing , transportation for 1 minute each • Recall from all 4 trees • Results : recalled an average of 73 words from all 4 trees ( well organized ) 46

Organizing information Gordon Bower and coworkers 1969 Randomized 4 trees • Participants studies and recall • Results : remember only 21 words • Conclusion : organizing material to be remembered results in substantially better recall 47

Organizing information Balloon experiment John Bransford and Marcia Johnson 1972 • Read a following passage : • If the balloon popped, the sound wouldn’t be able to carry since everything would be too far away from the correct floor. A closed window would also prevent the sound from carrying, since most buildings tend to be well insulated. Since the whole operation depends on the steady flow of electricity, a break in the middle of a wire would also cause problems. Of course, the fellow could shout, but the human voice is not loud enough to carry that far. An additional problem is that the string could break on the instrument. Then there would be no accompaniment to the message. It is clear that the best situation would involves less distance. Then there would be fewer potential problems. With face to face contact, the least number of things could go wrong. 48

Organizing information Balloon experiment John Bransford and Marcia Johnson 1972 • What was that all about ? • Found it extremely difficult to remember this passage

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Organizing information Balloon experiment John Bransford and Marcia Johnson 1972 – Group : saw the picture before read a passage – Another group : saw the picture after read a passage

• Compare both : first group remember more • Key : organization  easier to comprehend – Picture : provides a framework that helps the reader link one sentence to the next to create a meaningful story – How the ability to remember material depends on how that material programmed into the mind 50

Balloon experiment If the balloon popped, the sound wouldn’t be able to carry since everything would be too far away from the correct floor. A closed window would also prevent the sound from carrying, since most buildings tend to be well insulated. Since the whole operation depends on the steady flow of electricity, a break in the middle of a wire would also cause problems. Of course, the fellow could shout, but the human voice is not loud enough to carry that far. An additional problem is that the string could break on the instrument. Then there would be no accompaniment to the message. It is clear that the best situation would involves less distance. Then there would be fewer potential problems. With face to face contact, the least number of things could go wrong. 51

Chapter summery 14 • Additional factors that aid encoding are • Finding connections with other information ( the “chicken” sentence experiment; creating images; the self-reference effect ) • Generating information ( the generation effect ) • Organizing information ( spontaneous organization during recall; Bower’s “tree” experiment; the “Balloon experiment” illustrating what happens when organization is difficult ). 52

Factor that aid encoding • Maintenance rehearsal : shallow processing • Elaborative rehearsal : deep processing • Transfer-appropriate processing

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How are memories stored in the brain ?

Canadian psychologist Donald Hebb 1948

• Learning and memory are represented in the brain by physiological changes that take place at the synapse.

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Information storage at the synapse • Synapses : the small spaces between the end of one neuron and the cell body or dendrite of another neuron • Synaptic transmission : When signals reach the end of a neuron, they cause neurotransmitters to be released onto the next neuron

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Information storage at the synapse Memory is represented by changes at the synapse Experience activate the changes of synapse • Causing structural changes • Greater transmitter release • Increased firing 56

Information storage at the synapse Long – term potentiation ( LTP ) • Enhanced firing of neurons after repeated stimulation • Repeated stimulation causes not only structural changes but also enhanced responding 57

Information storage at the synapse

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Chapter summery 15 • Research on the physiological basis of memory indicates that the formation of memories is associated with structural changes at the synapse. • These structural changes are then translated into enhanced nerve firing, as indicated by long – term potentiation. 59

Forming memories in the brain : Fragility of new memories • Graded amnesia : amnesia is more severe for events or learning that was closer in time to the injury • Retrograde amnesia : amnesia before injury , the loss of memory for what has happened prior to the trauma • Anterograde amnesia : amnesia after injury

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Retrograde amnesia • As a football player runs downfield on a kickoff • He is hit hard enough to suffer a concussion • Sitting on the sidelines after the play • He remembers lining up for the kickoff • But doesn’t remember running down the field or getting hit 61

Electroconvulsive therapy • People receive shock treatment to help relieve severe depression • A brief electrical current is passed through the brain, causing loss of consciousness for a few minutes • They can’t remember things that happened just before the shock • Amnesia caused by ECT is generally temporary, so most of the lost memories are eventually regained 62

H.M. Anterograde amnesia • Removal of H.M.’s hippocampus made it impossible for him to form new memories Retregrade amnesia (partially) • Amnesia extended back for about 10-15 years prior to his operation • He could remember events that occurred before then 63

Graded amnesia • H.M. could remember events from his childhood, but apparently not with as much clarity and detail as a person without brain damage Graded amnesia = amnesia is most severe for events that occurred just prior to the injury and becomes less severe for earlier, more remote events 64

Forming memories in the brain : Fragility of new memories Retrograde amnesia • Head trauma from football playing • Electroconvulsive therapy ( ECT ) Anterograde amnesia • Brain surgery : removed hippocampus 65

Forming memories in the brain : Fragility of new memories

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Forming memories in the brain : Fragility of new memories Graded amnesia (retrograde amnesia) • Memory for recent events is more fragile than memory for remote events

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Forming memories in the brain : Fragility of new memories Consolidation – Transforms new memories from a fragile state, in which they can be disrupted, to a more permanent state, in which they are resistant to disruption

• A consolidation process must occur before memories become resistant to being disrupted 68

Chapter summery 16 • Concussions and electroconvulsive therapy can cause retrograde amnesia. • This retrograde amnesia is graded, so that memory loss is greatest for events that happened closest in time to the trauma. • This indicates that newly formed memories are fragile. 69

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