Maple Park & Countryside Fire Protection District
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FVCC Fire Rescue
Ventilation Part A
Truck Company Operations
Review of Ventilation Principles & Practices
Principles of Ventilation
• Truck Company Operations can be performed without access to the use of a aerial apparatus.
OBJECTIVES • 2-11.1 Identify the definition and principles of ventilation and the considerations of proper ventilation (3-3.10) • 2-11.2 Identify the safety considerations and precautions to be taken while ventilating a structure. (3-3.10, 3-3.11)
OBJECTIVES • 2-11.3 Identify the advantages and disadvantages of the following types of ventilation: ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫
2-11.3.1 Vertical (3-3.11) 2-11.3.2 Horizontal (3-3.10) 2-11.3.3 Trench/strip (3-3.11) 2-11.3.4 Mechanical (3-3.10) 2-11.3.5 Mechanical pressurization/positive pressure ventilation (3-3.10) ▫ 2-11.3.6 Hydraulic (3-3.10)
OBJECTIVES • 2-11.4 Identify the signs, causes and effects of backdraft explosions. (3-3.10) • 2-11.5 Identify methods of preventing a backdraft explosion. (3-3.10) • 2-11.6 Identify the characteristics of the following roof types: (3-3.10, 3-3.11)
OBJECTIVES ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫
2-11.6.1 Flat 2-11.6.2Shed 2-11.6.3 Pitched 2-11.6.4Arched
• 2-11.7 Identify the types of tools used during ventilation. (3-3.10)
OBJECTIVES • 2-11.8 Identify the necessary precautions when ventilating the following roof types: ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫
2-11.8.1 Flat 2-11.8.2Shed 2-11.8.3Pitched 2-11.8.4Arched
OBJECTIVES • 2-11.9 Identify the procedures for the types of ventilation referred to in 2-11.3 (3-3.10, 3-3.11) ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫
2-11.9.1 Vertical (3-3.11) 2-11.9.2 Horizontal (3-3.10) 2-11.9.3 Trench/strip (3-3.11) 2-11.9.4 Mechanical (3-3.10) 2-11.9.5 Mechanical pressurization/positive pressure ventilation (3-3.10) ▫ 2-11.9.6 Hydraulic (3-3.10)
OBJECTIVES • 2-11.10 Identify how the following factors are used to determine the integrity of a roof system: (3-3.10, 3-3.11) ▫ 2-11.10.1Construction ▫ 2-11.10.2 Visual observation ▫ 2-11.10.3 Elapsed time of fire
• Identify the procedures for opening various types of windows from inside and outside with the use of tools. (3-3.10)
OBJECTIVES • 2-11.12 Identify the procedures for opening various types of windows from inside and outside without the use of tools. (3-3.10) • 2-11.13 Identify the procedures for breaking window or door glass and removing obstructions. (3-3.10) • 2-11.14 Identify ventilation using water fog. (33.10, 3-3.11)
OBJECTIVES • 2-11.15 Demonstrate opening various types of windows from inside and outside with the use of tools. (3-3.10(b)) • 2-11.16 Demonstrate opening various types of windows from inside and outside without the use of tools (3-3.10(b))
OBJECTIVES • 2-11.17 Demonstrate breaking window or door glass and removing obstructions. (3-3.10(b)) • 2-11.18 Demonstrate the removal of skylights, scuttle covers, and other roof openings. (33.10(b)) • 2-11.19 Demonstrate ventilation using water fog. (3-3.10(b)), (3-3.11(b))
OBJECTIVES • 2-11.20 Demonstrate determining the integrity of a roof system by sounding. (3-3.11(b)) • 2-11.21 Demonstrate the ventilation of a flat roof using both hand tools and power tools. (33.11(b)) • 2-11.22 Demonstrate the ventilation of a pitched roof using both hand tools and power tools.
OBJECTIVES • 2-11.23 Demonstrate floor ventilation procedures. (3-3.11(b)) • 2-11.24 Demonstrate the use of positive pressure ventilation. (3-3.11(b))
▫ Ifsta, Essentials, 4th ed, Chapter 10 ▫ Delmar, Firefighter’s Handbook, copyright 2000, Chapter 18
Principles of Ventilation • Ventilation: the planned & systematic removal of heat, smoke and toxic gases from an area and the replacement of these products with cooler fresher air. • Planned aspect should be done during preincident planning to help identify buildings with light weight or wooden trusses.
Reduces Mushrooming Effect
Principles of Ventilation • Considerations ▫ Roof type Flat Arched Pitched
▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫
Type of building involved Location of the fire Duration of the fire Extent of the fire Existing roof openings
Principles of Ventilation •Effects of proper ventilation: •1. Better visibility
•2. Reduced temperature levels •3. Reduced possibility of back draft (heat & smoke removal) or flashover (heat removal). •4. Easier to locate seat of fire or victims. •5. Reduced smoke damage to property.
Principles of Ventilation • Advantages of ventilation toward fire suppression operations: 1. Assists with victim rescue. • 2. Increases fire attack. • 3. Reduces possibility of back draft/flashover. • 4. Aids in property conservation (fire confinement).
Principles of Ventilation • Signs of backdraft (smoke explosion): • • • • • • • •
Pressurized smoke appearing from small cracks Puffing smoke at intervals from the building Smoke stained windows New construction increase likelihood of backdraft because energy conservation measures trap heat inside structure. Smoke is a grey-yellow color or changes color. Sparking like effect of fire Little or No visible signs of flame. Inward movement of smoke.
PREVENTING A BACKDRAFT EXPLOSION • Provide vertical ventilation at highest point to permit the release of superheated gases.
Principles of Ventilation • • • •
Disadvantage: 1) Does not reduce the risk of fire flare up. 2) Increase fire intensity/spread. 3) Requires firefighters to work above the ground. • 4) Possibility of roof failure. • 5) Requires close communication.
Safety Precautions • Leader of the roof team you are RESPONSIBLE for:
• Make sure only the required ventilations are made • Direct efforts to minimize secondary damage caused by firefighters ventilating. • Insuring safety of all personnel who are working on the roof.
Safety Precautions • When considering the ventilation of a burning structure, the SAFETY of the occupants & your crew is the first priority. • Decide if there is a need to ventilate and if so what type of ventilation is needed?. • Rescue operations can begin: • • • •
a) prior to ventilation b) simultaneously to ventilation c) after ventilation operations have begun d) depends upon the circumstances
Safety Precautions • When ventilating a structure, firefighters should wear full PPE and SCBA. (Do’s)
Safety Precautions • (continued) Don’ts: • When ventilating a structure, firefighters should wear full PPE and SCBA.
Safety Precautions • Always vent at the HIGHEST point if possible. Helps reduce chances of backdraft.
Safety Precautions • Have hose lines in place and ready to make your attack. • During vent/ops, charged hose lines should be in place at all times and should be located at the attack entrance, immediate point where the fire could be expected to spread, and positions to protect exposures.
Safety Precautions • Always work with the wind at your back or side when cutting vent holes or venting windows.
Of course, you must always use the proper tool (ladder)for the job.
Safety Precautions • Never place a hose line or elevated stream into a ventilation opening. Especially with fire suppression crews working below.
Elevated streams are fire streams that are Directed over ventilation holes to help cool the thermal column, lessen sparks & flying brands.
Safety Precautions • Check stability of the roof before starting ventilation operations.
Safety Precautions • Restrict number of personnel working on roof to minimum to accomplish task.
Safety • Always Precautions work from a roof ladder when cutting hole on a pitched roof.
•Always work from a roof ladder when cutting hole on a pitched roof. (Don’ts)
Safety Precautions ▫ Extend ladders at least five rungs above the roof line. ▫ “Sound” the roof for structural integrity before stepping on it. ▫ Use supporting members of the structure for travel. ▫ When using a roof ladder, make sure it is firmly secured to the peak of the roof before using it. ▫ Work in groups of two, with no more people than absolutely necessary. ▫ Be aware of the following warning signs of an unsafe roof condition:
Melting asphalt “Spongy” roof Smoke coming from the roof Fire coming from the roof
Safety Precautions • Watch out for overhead power lines.
Safety Precautions • Have a secondary escape route from roof. Which should be located as far away from your ventilation hole as possible.
Safety Precautions • Check power tools on the ground to make sure they will start before taking to the roof. • Shut off power tools before carrying up ladder.
Rotor rescue saw Carbide tipped chain saw Vent saws
Safety Precautions • Always take a pick-headed axe (Axe will always start). • Keep other firefighters out of range of the axe. • Caution axe users to beware of overhead obstructions.
Safety Precautions • • •
Be careful not to cut main structural supports. Cut roof material diagonally along side of joists. Make sure the angle of the cut is directed toward your body.
Safety Precautions • Watch out for unsafe roof conditions. Lapping
Signs: melting asphalt, “spongy roof”, smoke coming from roof, fire coming from roof.
• Maintain communications capability with ventilation crew.
Safety Precautions • Remove crew from roof after ventilation hole is completed. 4 ft
Safety Precautions • Ventilation should be performed only after the seat of the fire has been located. • Basement fires are some of the most challenging fires for firefighters. • Windowless buildings create an adverse effect on firefighters & vent/ops. • Availability & involvement of exterior fire escapes & exposures. • Number & size of wall openings • Number of stories, stair cases, dumb waiters, ducts & roof openings the structures has to offer.
Safety Precautions • Do not place ladders in front of entry or exit points-keep these areas free for fireground operations and victim egress. • Do not place ladders over windows or doors when going to upper floors or the roof. Should fire vent out a window or door, it will compromise the ladder and its use.
• the pitch of the roof and the ridge vent can prevent the hooks of the roof ladder from properly engaging the roof and can result in your being able to pull a roof ladder off the roof with only a slight tug
• To avoid this, take the hook of a halligan tool and drive it into the roof just past the ridge
This enables you to safely secure the hook(s) of the roof ladder to the roof
• As always, when working on a pitched roof without a roof ladder, use a halligan tool or pickhead ax with the hook driven in for balance.