Murrin-CH04 - Arbortown Properties

January 7, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, Colonial History (1600-1775)
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Chapter 4 Provincial America and the Struggle for a Continent

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Expansion versus Anglicization • 18th Century British colonies sought to emulate homeland: housing, fashion, import British goods • Colonies’ population grew rapidly and demand for skilled and unskilled laborers, clergy, professionals outgrew supply – Northern colonies train their population for these roles – Southern colonies rely on immigrants

• Constant expansion of British meant constant retreat for Indians

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Threats to Householder Autonomy Political • Some families acquired more prestige than others • Elected office dominated by Colonial “gentleman” • Population grows much faster than elected offices

Economic • Increase in entail inspires new settlement • Tenancy and other forms of debt emerge

Anglicizing the Role of Women • Women worked harder to maintain family status • Some trends of inheritance (widows) reversed • European double standards of sexual behavior prevailed

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Expansion, Immigration, and Regional Differentiation • Post-1715: era of peace for settlements • During expansion, settlers fit into their distinct regions • New Englanders had sense of regional identity before independence

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Emergence of the Old South • 90% of slaves imported go to South • Plantation owners dominate politics • Slave life – – – – –

Slave gangs, but diverse tasks in tobacco country Malaria and sickle cell anemia Task system in rice country Gullah Violence against slaves

• Indigo and Eliza Lucas Pinckney (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The Mid-Atlantic Colonies: The “Best Poor Man’s Country” • Pennsylvania most attractive for immigrants – Scots-Irish (Ulsterites) – Germans (‘redemptioniers) – Philadelphia largest city in British North America by 1770s

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The Backcountry • Scots-Irish and Germans pushed west into interior of Virginia and Carolinas • Area develops its own distinct culture, not as Anglicized • Settlers of the backcountry considered clannish and violent

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

New England: A Faltering Economy and Paper Money • 18th century growth rate lower – More emigration than immigration – Disease and war lower life expectancy – “wheat blast” and food importation

• New England 18th century economy – – – –

Shipbuilding Rum industry and Molasses Act (1733) “Fiat” paper money and depreciation Anglicized currency: Thomas Hutchinson and repudiation of paper money

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Anglicizing Provincial America • Diversity of exports, commonality of imports • Georgia: Enlightenment by-product • Great Awakening • Mixed and balanced colonial constitutions

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The World of Print • English Enlightenment works spread through printing • 17th century printing limited to Boston • John Peter Zenger and freedom of the press – New York Weekly Journal

• Benjamin Franklin – Pennsylvania Gazette – Junto (American Philosophical Society) – Public citizen work: fire company, library, hospital, and College of Philadelphia – Inventor and scientist (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The Enlightenment in America • Man can improve his condition, God not vengeful • Low Church vs. High Church • Sir Isaac Newton, laws of motion • John Locke, philosopher • Enlightenment spirit dominates Harvard • Yale College (1701) founded as reaction against Enlightenment (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Lawyers and Doctors • Rise in legal and medical professions helped spread Enlightenment • Benjamin Rush • William Shippen

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Georgia: the Failure of a Enlightenment Utopia Background • 1730s: convergence of ideas of humanitarianism and social improvement led to founding of Georgia • Georgia’s purposes – Make productive use of “worthy” poor – Buffer of armed free men between S. Carolina and Spanish Florida – Produce silk and wine

• •

• •

Operation Slaves and Liquor banned Silk and wine production fail No elective assembly Outcome – Royal govt. imposed 1752 – Economic structure mimics South Carolina

The Great Awakening • mid-1730s to early 1740s: immense religious revival: Great Awakening • Swept across Protestant lands throughout Europe and the colonies • Methodists and Baptists surged ahead

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Origins of the Revivals • Theodorus Frelinghuysen • Gilbert Tennent – The Dangers of an Unconverted Ministry (1740)

• Jonathan Edwards – A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God (1737)

• John Wesley – Methodists (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The Synod of Philadelphia, 1738 (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Whitefield Launches the Transatlantic Revival • George Whitefield • Traveled and preached throughout Atlantic colonies • Anglicans – reserved towards him • Presbyterian, Congregationalists, Baptists – embraced him • Concept that all English Protestants were members of the same church (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Disruptions • Hugh Bryan: “American Moses” • Gilbert Tennent • James Davenport – “Shepherd’s Tent”

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Long-Term Consequences of the Revivals • Evangelical churches “feminized” • Freemasons • Congregational Church and evangelical secession • “Letter days” and the breaking down of localism • Jonathan Edwards and A Treatise concerning Religious Affections (1746) (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

New Colleges • • • • • •

College of New Jersey (Princeton) College of Rhode Island (Brown) Queen’s College (Rutgers) Dartmouth College College of Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) King’s College (Columbia)

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Denominational Realignment Pre-realignment dominant groups • New England Congregationalist • Delaware valley Quakers • South Anglican

Groups that gain • Methodists • Baptists • Presbyterians

Political Culture in the Colonies • Colonists felt they were free because they were British • Mixed constitutions that united monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy in perfect balance • 1720s: every colony (except Connecticut and Rhode Island) had an appointive governor, council and elective assembly – Governor = monarch – Council = aristocracy – Elected assembly = commons (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The Rise of the Assembly and the Governor • In all 13 colonies, settlers elected their assembly • Three-fourths of free adult white men in colonies could vote (vs. one-third in England) • Assemblies gain power at expense of councils • Royally appointed governors: success dependent on winning over assembly • “Factions” (political parties) universally condemned in colonies (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

“Country” Constitutions: The Southern Colonies • The “politics of harmony” • VA governors Alexander Spotswood and William Gooch • “Faction” free politics and policy – Virginia Tobacco Inspection Act

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

“Court” Constitutions: The Northern Colonies • Greater economic diversity, greater factionalism • William Shirley and Benning Wentworth: governance through reward and patronage • Common politics: liberty, property, and no popery • Robert Hunter • Quaker Party

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The Renewal of Imperial Conflict

• 1739-1763: new era of imperial war • English colonies, New France, New Spain and Indians all involved • North America split between Spain and Britain

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Challenges to French Power • Louisbourg fortress, Cape Breton Island • Company of the Indies and Louisiana • French hold on American interior weakened in both North and South • Indian “republics” and trade with the British • Natchez Indians • France lost influence and prestige in North America (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The Danger of Slave Revolts and War with Spain

• Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose (Mose) – Francisco Menéndez – Yamasees

• • • •

Stono Rebellion (1739) War of Jenkins’s Ear New York conspiracy trials Britain defeats Spain – Oglethorpe’s defense of Georgia – Anson and the capture of the Manila galleon

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

France versus Britain: King George’s War • • • •

France joins Spain against Britain 1744 Fort Louisbourg falls to British 1745 Boston Impressment riots 1746 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The Impending Storm • War drove British frontiers back, but colonies had promised land grants to volunteers • Areas of frenzied expansion: Maine, New Hampshire and middle colonies – Colony vs. colony – Settlers vs. Native Americans – British vs. French

• Ohio Company of Virginia – George Washington

• Marquis Duquesne • French movement to block British settlement west of Alleghenies

The War for North America • 1755: British professional army conflicted with the householder society and voluntaristic colonists • Colonists and Britain learn to cooperate in order to achieve victory against France

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The Albany Congress and the Onset of War • War: New France vs. Virginia • Albany Congress – Keep Six Nations (Iroquois) neutral – Benjamin Franklin and the Albany Plan • President General and Grand Council • Raise soldiers, levy taxes, deal with Indians • Rejection

– Centralized relations with Indians

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Britain’s Years of Defeat • Edward Braddock • Fort Duquesne • Acadians – Cajuns

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

A World War • Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil – Frontier war to scatter Britain’s superior resources

• Louis-Joseph, marquis de Montcalm – Traditional European siege warfare

• Fort William Massacre • Britain declares war on France, 1756 • Seven Years’ War (1756-1763): France, Austria, and Russia vs. Prussia (subsidized by Britain) • Spain neutral until 1762 (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Imperial Tensions: From Loudoun to Pitt • Earl of Loudoun, British military commander in N. America 1755 – Coercion to force colonial cooperation

• William Pitt, Prime Minister 1757 – Consent to gain colonial cooperation – Replaces Loudoun with James Abercrombie

• By 1758, Britain finally had a military force capable of overwhelming New France • Cooperation between redcoats and provincials became routine and effective in warfare against French & Indians (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The Years of British Victory • British navy prevents France from reinforcing Canada • Marquis de Montcalm (French N. America commander) decides on defensive strategy • Peace between Indians and British 1758 • Quebec 1759 – James Wolfe – Marquis de Montcalm – Plains of Abraham

• Montreal and the fall of Canada (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The Cherokee War and Spanish Intervention • Cherokee attack 1760 – Drive South Carolina settlement back 100 miles – Peace treaty 1761, but backcountry settlers restless

• Spain entered war 1762 • British forces took Havana and Manila in the Philippines • France and Spain sued for peace (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The Peace of Paris • Peace of Paris ended the war 1763 • Britain returned Martinique and Guadeloupe to France • France surrendered some West Indian islands and mainland North America east of Mississippi • Havana returned to Spain, Florida ceded to Britain • France gives New Orleans and lands W of Mississippi river to Spain • Indians angrily rejected peace settlement and France’s surrender of their lands to Great Britain (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Conclusion • 1713-1754: expansion and renewed immigration pushed settlements of North America into the interior • Colonies anglicized in many ways due to impacts of a growing population – Impacts on families, women – Enlightenment and Great Awakening

• Imperial rivalries: French and Indian war • Provincials and redcoats: different perceptions

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

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