Nigeria - Central Kitsap High School

January 13, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science, Government
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Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.

NIGERIA AP GOV 2014-2015

Really good history in 2 parts

Nigeria . . . A study in Democratic Consolidation

Nigeria elections: Obasanjo quits PDP after criticising Jonathan . . . Read paragraphs about military . . . And look at vocab

Nigerian vote delay prompts suspicion of election rigging, worries of violence

The People's Democratic Party is a centrist political party in Nigeria. It won the Presidential elections of , 2003, and 2007, and 2011 and is the dominant party in the Fourth Republic. The PDP favors free-market policies which support economic liberalism, and limited government regulation. In The PDP strives to maintain the status quo on oil revenue distribution. Though the PDP government setup the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) to address the needs of the oil-producing Niger Delta states, it has rebuffed repeated efforts to revert back to the 50% to 50% federal-to-state government revenue allocation agreement established in 1966.

Social issues The PDP is against same sex relations, and favors social conservatism on moral and religious grounds. In 2007, the PDP-dominated National Assembly sponsored a bill to outlaw homosexual relations, making it punishable by law for up to five years in prison On the other hand, the PDP adopts a more leftist stance towards poverty and welfare. In 2005, President Obasanjo launched Nigeria's first National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to ensure that every Nigerian has access to basic health care services

The All Progressives Congress (APC) is a social-democratic[2] political party in Nigeria, formed on 6 February 2013 in anticipation of the 2015 elections Formed in February 2013, the party is the result of an alliance by Nigeria's three biggest opposition parties – the Action Congress of Nigeria (ACN), the Congress for Progressive Change (CPC), the All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP) - and a faction of the All Progressives Grand Alliance (APGA) – merged to take on the People's Democratic Party.[6][7] The resolution was signed by Tom Ikimi, the current spokesman for the party, who represented the ACN; Senator Annie Okonkwo on behalf of the APGA; former governor of Kano State, Mallam Ibrahim Shekarau, the Chairman of ANPP's Merger Committee; and Garba Sadi, the Chairman of CPC's Merger Committee.[8] The party received approval from the nation's electoral umpire Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) on 31 July 2013 to become a political party and subsequently withdrew the operating licenses of the three previous and merging parties (the ACN, CPC and ANPP

Resources on Boko Haram John Green: Understanding Boko Haram Other resources if you want more: Need To Know: What is driving Nigeria's Boko Haram? 2 minute video BBC

Who are Boka Haram Nov 11, Al Jazeera 28 minutes

8 February 2015 Last updated at 20:29 ET Nigeria elections: Mapping a nation divided Nigeria is Africa's biggest oil producer and most populous country but poverty is widespread and the country is in the grip of a violent uprising by Islamists Boko Haram. The BBC maps the country's divisions ahead of its postponed elections.

See maps:

.Nollywood—17 minute video 2 mins VOA August 2014: Ted talk: Article: A Scorsese in Lagos The Making of Nigeria’s Film Industry

Nigeria is a good example of REGIME change _______ _________: a sudden shock to state policy involving deliberate violation of constitutional reforms by a group of persons in authority; a quick and decisive seizure of governmental power by a strong military or political group. In contrast to a r____________, a coup does not involve a mass uprising. Rather, in a typical coup, a small group of politicians or generals arrests the incumbent leaders, seizes the national radio and television services and proclaims itself in power. French for stroke of the state or blow to the government


Do you get it???? In _________ the 4th republic begins when ____________ was elected first president. Nigeria made its first transition from one elected government to another when Obasanjo won a second term in April ________ (year) (1999 plus 4) The ruling ___________ (party) also dominated the legislative elections, winning 76 of 109 ___________seats and 223 of 360 House seats

But Then . . . . Questions about Elections April 2007 Will Nigeria make it through a third presidential election?

The Economist asked: Could Double-O make it three in a row? What was the issue??? On May 16, 2006 the Nigerian Senate voted to block a constitutional amendment which would have allowed its president to serve more than two terms in office.

Next election : Do you get it???? If successfully completed, the _______(year) presidential election will mark Nigeria's first peaceful handover from one democratically elected president at the end of his constitutional term to the next. The most recent failed election was the 1993 election of M. K. O. Abiola, which was annulled by Ibrahim B_________the military dictator ruling at the time. General Sani ________eventually seized power, and when Abiola tried to claim his presidency, he was imprisoned until his questionable death in 1998.

Do you get it???? The Nigerian general elections of 2007 were held on 14 April and 21 April 2007. Governorship and state assembly elections were held on 14 April, while the presidential and N__________ A___________elections were held a week later on 21 April. Umaru _____ _______won the highly controversial election for the ruling __________ __________ Party and was sworn in on 29 May. President Olusegun Obasanjo could not pursue a third term. Additionally he was unsupported by Atiku Abubakar, his vice-president. Presidential candidates were announced in late December 2006, and 50,000 assault rifles were ordered to help the military maintain order during the election. Umaru Yar'Adua contested the election for the ruling People's Democratic Party (PDP), and the opposition All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP) chose Muhammadu Buhari. Atiku Abu-Bakr, the current Vice-President, announced on 25 November 2006 that he would contest the election, and he subsequently became the presidential candidate of the Action Congress in December.

Results of Election

Results: A First in Nigeria: A Peaceful __________of Power Nigeria’s new president, Umaru Yar’Adua, took office Tuesday in Abuja. After a history of military coups, Mr. Yar’Adua’s inauguration was the country’s first peaceful transition of power between civilians

ABUJA, Nigeria, May 29 (AP) — This time, the shots were fired in celebration. For the first time in Nigeria’s coup-riddled history, power passed between two civilians, as the army hailed the new president, Umaru Yar’Adua, with a 21-gun salute on Tuesday

THEN . . . . President Yar'adua dies and Nigeria power struggle begins Nigeria President Umaru Yar’Adua died late Wednesday and his former vice president, Goodluck Jonathan, was sworn in today. But will Jonathan run again in next year's election, or follow Nigeria's tradition of rotating the presidency between north and south? By Scott Baldauf, Staff writer / May 6, 2010

Nigeria's acting president, Goodluck Jonathan (right), takes the oath of office in front of chief justice Aloysius Katsina-Alu (left), to become the nation's next leader, at the presidential villa in Abuja, Nigeria, Thursday. Jonathan was sworn in, just hours after the death of President Umaru Yar’Adua


The late Nigerian President Umaru Yar'Adua came to power in 2007

Since the return of civilian rule in 1999, the ruling and dominant People's Democratic Party (PDP) has sought to rotate, or "zone" the office of president between the overwhelmingly Muslim north and the mainly Christian south. Under this plan, the Mr Yar'Adua was supposed to be the northern president who would follow the two terms (1999-2007) served by the southerner Olusegun Obasanjo. But fate dealt the plan a blow with Mr Yar'Adua's death from a long illness - and the subsequent accession to the presidency of another southerner, the former Vice-President Goodluck Jonathan. The handover to President Jonathan was entirely peaceful, legal and constitutional. But it has broken the deal planned by the godfathers of the powerful PDP. So some northern leaders are complaining that President Jonathan should not seek to stand as the PDP candidate in elections next year. The issue of power rotation is enshrined in the PDP's constitution," a leading northern politician, Atiku Abubakar, told me in his sumptuous, almost palatial Abuja home. Referring to the deal within the PDP in the late 90s which saw Mr Obasanjo stand on the party's presidential ticket, Mr Abubakar said: "It was agreed that the presidency should be retained in the south" for eight years. "And that when it reverts to the north it should also remain there for eight years. In fact there was a vote. I was there. And to the best of my knowledge that position has not been reviewed - so that is what it is today."

Facebook launch On 29 June 2010, President Jonathan became the first serving Nigerian president to launch a Facebook page. He stated that this action was part of fulfilling a promise he had made earlier to interact more with Nigerians.[ 2011 presidential campaign and elections On 15 September 2010, Jonathan announced on the social media website, Facebook that he had decided to run for his first ever political election to hold public office as President of Nigeria in 2011

Parliamentary Elections April 2011

(Reuters) - Nigeria postponed parliamentary elections until Monday after voting materials failed to arrive in many areas, a major blow to hopes of a break with a history of chaotic polls in Africa's most populous nation. Voters had trooped early to polling stations across the country of 150 million, eager for a ballot less tainted by fraud and violence than 2007 elections that lacked credibility in the eyes of Nigerians and international observers Electoral system: Women in parliament

And then the Presidential election is held . . . .Lines are long again

Queues in Lagos have been long, despite the heat (Photo sent in by BBC Hausa listener Ubale)

One woman wore a dress showing the portrait of the first lady, Patience Jonathan, in the queue in Otuoke

Remember the highlights from this article

The Executive Branch • Popularly elected (like the US he chooses and runs with a VP); • Head of state and government (he and his ministers may not simultaneously serve in the National Assembly); • Commander-in-chief of the armed forces; • Serves a four year FIXED term ( maximum of two terms); • Performs ceremonial duties of leadership; • Veto (subject to 2/3 override) • Oversees the daily administration of gov’t • Coordinates/ oversees armed forces; C in C • Appoints gov’t ministers (confirmed by Senate); • The President and his ministers make up a Federal Executive Committee (assure that enacted laws are properly implemented)

Exec Leg relations In spite of a more than two-thirds majority control of the Assembly by the ruling PDP)the PDP government led by Olusegun Obasanjo and the Assembly have been known more for their disagreements than for their cooperation. President Obasanjo has been accused of interference in the Assembly's affairs while the Assembly's PDP members have actively supported two impeachment attempts by opposition legislators. The Senate also refused to amend the Constitution to allow double O to go 3 in a row.

Nigeria: Impeachment Threat - We Can't Be Blackmailed, Reps Warn By Edegbe Odemwingie, Adesuwa Tsan, Gabriel Ewepu, and Muazu Elazeh, 24 July 2012 nal_Assembly_Election

Women in Politics Country

Rank *

Lower or Single House Elections

United States


Upper House or Senate











11 2014




11 2014

United Kingdom


05 2005










12 2007










03 2008










03 2008










07 2006




07 2006






04 2011



6.7 %

04 2011



4 6.7%

• • • •

The Judiciary

Interpret the laws; Supreme Court is at the apex; Court of Appeals and a Federal High Court; The Capital of Abuja has a High Court, Sharia Court of Appeal, and Customary Court of Appeal • Also state courts (federal system) which deal with most criminal law • Legal system based on English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations The Supreme Court is composed of the Chief ________ and not more than thirteen justices, appointed by the President on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council and subject to confirmation by the Senate. Justices of the Supreme Court must be qualified to practice law in Nigeria, and must have been so qualified for a period not less than fifteen years. Justices of the Supreme Court of Nigeria have a mandatory retirement age of 70 years

Nigeria sup ct

27 January 2012 Last updated at 10:12 ET Supreme Court dismisses five governors The governors had all won re-run elections a year after their initial victories in 2007 were annulled Nigeria's Supreme Court has ordered five of the country's powerful state governors to step down immediately. It marks the end of a long legal battle about when exactly their terms in office, which last four years, began. They were from the ruling People's Democratic Party, winning polls in 2007 in Bayelsa, Cross River, Kogi, Adamawa and Sokoto and vote re-runs in 2008. The BBC's Fidelis Mbah in Lagos says it is a landmark judgement, asserting the authority of the judiciary. Governors, who can serve no longer than two terms in office, enjoy wide powers in Nigeria. Some, especially in oil-producing areas, control bigger budgets than those of national governments in some neighbouring West African countries. 'Stopping culture of impunity' The five governors affected by the ruling had all won re-run elections a year after their initial victories in 2007 were annulled because of irregularities. Last year, a lower court had exempted them from having to face elections in April 2011, saying their tenures had started in 2008. But Supreme Court Judge Walter Onnoghen said on Friday: "To allow the governors seeking tenure elongation will allow a culture of impunity in the system", AFP news agency reports. Our correspondent says the speakers of the respective state House of Assemblies will assume the governorships in Bayelsa and Cross River states in the south and Sokoto and Adamawa in the north until elections are held later in the year. The central state of Kogi already has a governor-elect following elections in December, as the sitting governor was serving his last term in office. Liyel Imoke, the outgoing governor of Cross River, said on the social networking site Facebook that he had already vacated his office. He will be running for a second term and appealed for "calm and peace in the state"

Nigeria is a Federal State

Nigerian states that implement some form of sharia law (in green)

From Occupy Nigeria website

CIA Factbook: Religions--Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10% --statistics vary—remember the census? English: official language

More good charts and graphs from the Economist 02/nigerias-postponedelection?zid=304&ah=e5690753dc78ce91909083042 ad12e30

Mosque in Abuja

Church in Abuja Nigeria: a nation divided

Elections in __________ (year)

2011 Gubernatorial election results

Remember electoral system: In first round, need an absolute __________and at least ______in two-thirds of the states is required for a candidate to be elected in the first round.

“Federal Character” Principle: 14. (1) The Federal Republic of Nigeria shall be a State based on the principles of democracy and social justice. ... (3) The composition of the Government of the Federation or any of its agencies and the conduct of its affairs shall be carried out in such a manner as to reflect the federal character of Nigeria and the need to promote national unity, and also to command national loyalty, thereby ensuring that there shall be no predominance of persons from a few State or from a few ethnic or other sectional groups in that Government or in any of its agencies.

ZONING A gentlemen's agreement, within the ruling Peoples Democratic Party (PDP), meant that power rotates between the predominantly Muslim north and Christian south every two terms, which means the flag bearer of the party for this election was scheduled to be represented by a Northerner.

After the death of President Umar Yar'Adua, a Northern Muslim, his Vice President Goodluck Jonathon, a Southern Christian, took over as acting president. The suggestion that Jonathan was considering running for the presidency in his own right was controversial as Yar'Adua had only served one of the two possible terms as president after Southerner Olusegun Obasanjo

In May 1967 the Igbo dominated Eastern Region seceded from Nigeria, declaring itself the Republic of Biafra. Although the Biafrans were outnumbered and outgunned, they held off the Nigerian military for three years, helped in part by international support, which believed that the Nigerian government was conducting a genocidal war against the Igbo. Azikiwe, who had been dismissed from his post by the military government, became a prominent supporter of Biafran independence. Biafra was defeated in 1970. Although this did not lead to the Igbo extermination that many feared, the war itself exacted huge costs in terms of military and civilian life—estimates range from 500,000 to as high as three million

GO to: june/30/newsid_3733000/3733321.stm

Evid of Centralization or Decentralization? Twelve northern Nigerian states have introduced Sharia since the year 2000. The move initially heightened tensions between Muslims and Christians and led to clashes which left thousands dead. Safiya Husseini, acquitted after death sentence for adultery SHARIA LAW

Many amputations sentences have not been carried out

Sharia was very popular in the north when introduced

A sign in Kano reminds visitors that religious law is in place throughout the state and that they should "take heed."

Girls in Kano, Nigeria, attend a hybrid school that combines Islamic education with secular subjects like math and reading

New programs have sprung up to encourage parents to send their daughters to hybrid public elementary schools that offer traditional Islamic education along with math and reading. In many of these classes girls outnumber boys

Social Movements

Initially as spokesperson, and then as President, of the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP), Saro-Wiwa led a nonviolent campaign against environmental damage associated with the operations of multinational oil companies, especially Shell. He was executed by the Nigerian Military in 1995, his death provoking international outrage

Members of Movement for the Emancipation for the Niger Delta. Photo: George Osodi/AP


June 9, 2009 Shell to Pay $15.5 Million to Settle Nigerian Case By JAD MOUAWAD New York Times

GO TO: http://www.theguard jun/08/nigeria-usa

Ken Saro-Wiwa Jr. sued Royal Dutch Shell, saying it had culpability in his father’s death.

Militants from the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta patrolling the delta. Photographs by Michael Kamber The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta ("MEND") is a militant indigenous people's movement dedicated to armed struggle against the exploitation and oppression of the people of Niger Delta and the degradation of the natural environment by foreign multinational corporations involved in the extraction of oil in the Niger Delta and the Federal Government of Nigeria. MEND has been linked to attacks on foreign owned petroleum companies in Nigeria. SEE:

The Economist has described the organization as one that "portrays itself as political organisation that wants a greater share of Nigeria’s oil revenues to go to the impoverished region that sits atop the oil. In fact, it is more of an umbrella organisation for several armed groups, which it sometimes pays in cash or guns to launch attacks." mend amnesty

A trash dump in Lagos, Nigeria. By some estimates, misrule has cost the national treasury $400 billion in theft and waste

Nigeria Tries to ‘Sanitize’ Itself of Gays By ADAM NOSSITERFEB. 8, 2014 m/2014/02/09/world/af rica/nigeria-uses-lawand-whip-to-sanitizegays.html?_r=0

A bailiff in Bauchi, in mostly Muslim northern Nigeria, reenacted the lashing of a man convicted of homosexuality. Credit Benedicte Kurzen for The New York Times


Almost of all of Nigeria's current production comes from the onshore Nige Delta region shown here. Nigeria Economy Feb 2015;

Nigeria’s Economy

Nigeria could become Africa's biggest economy BBC explains

Needle on Zero: Nigeria's Economy Tanking as U.S. Oil Exports Dry Up NBC News Nov 29, 2014 When the terrorist group Boko Haram kidnapped more than 250 Nigerian schoolgirls last spring, many news reports noted that Nigeria had long been one of the biggest suppliers of oil to the United States, suggesting that economic relationship gave Washington a strong incentive to help track down the kidnappers. That was wrong. In April, the same month the girls were snatched from an elementary school in Chibok, only 4.5 million barrels of Nigerian oil arrived at U.S. ports, down from a record high of 40 million barrels seven years earlier. And by July, the spigot was shut off completely. Over the next six weeks, not a single drop of Nigerian light, sweet crude arrived in the U.S. - all of it replaced at Gulf Coast refineries by fracked oil from fields like the Bakken formation in North Dakota and Eagle Ford in Texas

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

A Rentier State A state that derives a substantial portion of its revenue on a regular basis from payments by foreign concerns in the form of rents (extraction fees): a subsystem of rentier economy, which is an economy heavily supported by state expenditure, while the state itself continually receives rents from abroad. The theory of the “rentier state” says that countries that receive substantial amounts of oil revenues from the outside world on a regular basis tend to become autonomous from their societies, unaccountable to their citizens, and autocratic.

Bonny, site of one of Shell's


main oil facilities in Nigeria

Gas Line Explodes in Nigeria, Killing at Least 260

A man washed soot from his face Tuesday in Lagos, Nigeria, after a gas pipeline ruptured by thieves exploded. At least 260 people were killed in the blast, which spewed fire and black smoke. It was the latest oil-industry disaster in Nigeria, Africa’s largest petroleum producer. Dec 27, 2006

Environmental Damage Oil bunkering threatens Nigeria’s economy, environment Shell to pay Nigeria locals for 'devastating' oil spill 7 January 2015 Last updated at 03:34 GMT

100 Feared Dead in Nigerian Pipeline Fire

May 16, 2008 LAGOS, Nigeria — More than 100 people were feared dead on Thursday after a construction vehicle struck an oil pipeline on the outskirts of Lagos, Nigeria’s biggest city, setting off an oil-fed inferno that spread to surrounding homes and a school. In Ijegun, a suburb of Lagos, people tried to stop the spread of an oil-fed fire on Thursday.

Oil company employees are suspected of selling their skills to oil bunkerers

RESOURCE CURSE The oil and gas sector accounts for about 35 per cent of gross domestic product, and petroleum exports revenue represents over 90 per cent of total exports revenue. Its currency is the naira Nigeria Plans Budget Cuts as Oil Price Drop Erodes Revenue

Nigeria's economy is under pressure from oil price drop 13 February 2015 Last updated at 16:54 GMT Nigeria is Africa's largest oil producer, pumping over two million barrels a day. For decades, the country has relied heavily on the oil sector to bring in taxes and foreign exchange. But the drop in the oil price has knocked the value of the local currency - the naira - by nearly 20%. Those immediately affected are ordinary people, and also the new generation of investors who only entered the oil and gas businesses in recent years.

Nigeria's postponed election A powder keg Economist Feb 8, 2015 Whoever wins the election will have their work cut out. Nigeria's growth has, in recent years, been fuelled by high oil prices. A fall in the price of crude has already led to a sharp depreciation in Nigeria's currency, the naira. Although Nigeria's economy has diversified away from oil in recent years, many economists are beginning to lower their forecasts of its economic growth this year. The country also suffers from dilapidated infrastructure, particularly in power-generation and transmission. Many businesses, from shopping malls to mobile-phone masts, have to install expensive diesel-powered generators to keep the lights on or the phones working. Some economists reckon that this weak power infrastructure is trimming Nigeria's economic growth by at least 3% each year. Fixing this ought to be among the first priorities of a new government.

4. Define a rentier (rent-seeking) state. Identify one rentier state among the six AP Comparative Politics and Government countries. Describe a problem that a rentier state typically faces that has an impact on economic development.

2010 Rubric: epository/ap10_comp_govt_politics_q4.pdf

3 Points One point is earned for a correct definition of a rentier state. Acceptable definitions include: • a country that obtains lucrative income by exporting a raw material or leasing out a natural resource to foreign countries • a country that obtains much of its revenue from the export of oil or another natural resource • a country that receives a significant amount of income in the form of rents from foreign companies Note: The answer must show that not only are resources purchased or leased from the other state, but significant income is accrued by the state. One point is earned for a correct identification of one country in the AP Comparative Government and Politics course that is a rentier state. Acceptable identifications include: • Iran • Nigeria • Russia One point is earned for a correct description of a problem that a rentier state typically faces that has an impact on economic development. Acceptable descriptions include: • lack of diversification of the local economy • price fluctuations caused by dependence on world market • income inequality exacerbated where disparity is already extreme • no incentive to industrialize/modernize economy • increased opportunity for corrupt usage of income from rents • lack of accountability to citizens Note: Foreign economic investment alone is not a sufficient answer. The response must show that investments are made in a specific resource that produces the major portion of the state’s income/budget.

2011 Country Context: We suggest that you spend approximately 40 minutes (20 minutes each) on questions 7 and 8. 7. As in many multiethnic countries, religious and ethnic tensions are prominent in the Federal Republic of Nigeria. (a) Describe federalism in Nigeria. (b) Explain one way Nigeria’s federal structure accommodates different religious groups AND one way the federal structure accommodates different ethnic groups. (c) Identify the type of electoral system used in Nigeria. (d) Explain two ways the Nigerian electoral system accommodates different ethnic groups. (e) Explain why Nigeria’s federal structure has been unable to resolve tensions in the Niger River delta. Rubric: 11_gopo_comp_scoring_guidelines.pdf

#FuelSubsidyRemoval: The Presidency Vs the House of Representatives

President Goodluck Jonathan has accused the House of Representatives of stirring Nigerians against his government by passing a resolution urging him to suspend the removal of petrol subsidy. “That extraordinary session coming a day on the eve of an attempt by some people to disrupt law and order could be interpreted in some quarters as an attempt by the House of Representatives to incite the Nigerian people against the government and the last time I checked the lawmakers are also a part of this government,” the President said through his Special Adviser on Media and Publicity, Dr Reuben Abati. . . . ”. The house was alarmed that the Executive chose to introduce a policy as ‘highly volatile as the removal of fuel subsidy’ at a time when Nigerians were mourning the loss of loved ones resulting from acts of terrorism. They therefore insisted that the country must first exist harmoniously before it can derive benefits of any public policy however critical it might be. The Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC) and Trade Union Congress of Nigeria (TUC) immediately commended members of the House of Representatives over the motion in the House, demanding that the federal government suspends its decision on the removal of fuel subsidy, leading to over 120 per cent increase in the price of petrol.

Civil Society Neither the British colonial government nor the series of military authoritarian regimes has been able to squelch Nigeria’s rich tradition of activism and dissent. Even Abacha’s oppressive dictatorship in the 1990s could not fully muzzle what one foreign observer referred to as Nigerian citizens’ “defiant spunk.”

Unions have existed in Nigeria for almost a century

The Nigerian Media • When compared to other like countries, it is well developed and independent, a touch of Britain perhaps? About 80 national and local papers are available in English, but literacy is a major concern • BBC: Nigeria's media scene is one of the most vibrant in Africa. State-run radio and TV services reach virtually all parts of the country and operate at a federal and regional level. All 36 states run their own radio stations, and most of them operate TV services General Abacha acted out of the norm when he closed newspapers and magazines in 1994. • Most of the media is ethnic based, and the more outspoken sources generally are found in the south. • A lot of the media is also government run, but the private broadcasters are some of the most competitive in Africa and radio news is very popular (Wedding, pp. 156-15

Nigeria has some of the worst social indicators in the world: one in five children die before the age of five; 12 million children are not in school; and there are nearly two million Aids orphans.

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