PPT Types of Government
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Types of Governments
Classifying Government Monarchy or Republic
Ask who makes the rules – a lifelong leader or elected representatives?
A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor, empress, etc. The ruling position can be passed on to the ruler’s heirs. In some traditional monarchies, the monarch has absolute power. But a constitutional monarchy, like the United Kingdom, also has a democratic government that limits the monarch's control.
republic is a country that has no monarch. The head of the country is usually an elected president.
Classifying Government Democracy or Dictatorship Ask who holds the power -- the people or a small group of leaders?
a democracy, the government is elected by the people. Everyone who is eligible to vote has a chance to have his or her say over who runs the country.
A dictatorship is ruled by a single leader. The leader has not been elected and may use force to keep control.
a military dictatorship, the army is in control.
Classifying Government Unitary or Federal
Ask whose authority is limited – regional governments or the central government?
Federal or Unitary Unitary - very strong central government; states have weak authority (United Kingdom) Federal - central and states governments share authority (United States) Confederation - independent states agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish a joint way to consult (Switzerland)
Classifying Government Parliament or President
Ask who is in charge – the legislative branch or an elected president?
Types of Monarchies Parliamentary - The monarch does not make policy; he or she is a figurehead. (United Kingdom) Absolute – The supreme power is in the hands of a ruler who usually rules for life by hereditary life. (Saudi Arabia) Constitutional - The monarchy is guided by a written constitution that lists laws and responsibilities. (Japan, Bhutan)
Types of Republics Representative Democracy - The people’s elected representatives vote on legislation. (United States) Federal Republic - The power of the central government is restricted, the states or provinces have some self-government, and ultimate power is held by the voters who choose their representatives. (United States, India) Confederation - a combination of representative democracy and direct democracy
Rule by Many Democracy - a government in which the supreme power is held by the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation (It usually involves periodically held free elections.) --Constitutional Monarchy --Constitutional Democracy --Parliamentary Democracy (Great Britain, United States, Israel)
Rule by A Few Oligarchy - a government by the few, sometimes a government in which a small group exercises control especially for corrupt and selfish purposes (The citizen has a very limited role.) --Communism --Totalitarianism --Military Dictatorship --Theocracy (People’s Republic of China, Libya, Iran)
Rule by One Autocracy - a form of government in which one person possesses unlimited power and the citizen has little if any role in the government --Absolute Monarchy --Dictatorship (Swaziland, Brunei) [Interesting Note: The Sultan of Brunei, whose title has passed within the same dynasty since the 15th century, is the head of state and head of government in Brunei. There is no elected legislative body.]
COMMON TERMS Federal republic - USA, Austria, and Germany are republics governed by representative democracy in which the states play a crucial role. Confederation - Switzerland is a federal republic governed by a combination of representative democracy and direct democracy. Islamic Republic - Countries like Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran are republics governed in accordance with Islamic law. People's Republic - Countries like China and North Korea are meant to be governed for and by the people but generally without direct elections. This name is generally used by communist states. Democratic Republic – This term applies to the United States, but it is often used by communists and it is similar in meaning to People's Republic.