Presentation ISFM Ronner Franke vd Brand de Wolf Giller

January 14, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Health Science, Pediatrics
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Sustainable intensification of farming systems through legume technologies: Lessons learnt for expansion of N2Africa to new countries Esther Ronner1, Linus C. Franke1, Greta J. van den Brand1, Judith J. de Wolf2, Ken E. Giller1 1 Wageningen

University; 2 CIAT Zimbabwe

Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa

Outline • Introduction • Lessons learnt and new approaches: – From proof of concept to understanding variability – Tailoring of technologies to farm types – Dissemination approaches

• Conclusions

Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa

Introduction – The N2Africa project • ‘Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers growing legume crops in Africa’ • Focus on cowpea, soybean, common bean and groundnut • Funds: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Howard G. Buffet Foundation • Led by Wageningen University; main partners IITA and CIAT-TSBF • Originally eight countries in 2009 • Extension to Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, Liberia, Sierra Leone and DR Congo

Introduction – New countries, new approach? ‘Development to research’ Research M&E D&D

• Dissemination and delivery are the core • Monitoring & evaluation provides the learning • Research analyses and feeds back

From proof of concept... (1)

• Hypothesis in N2Africa: BNF and legume yields determined by interaction of: (GL x GR) x E x M

• Detailed agronomy trials in limited number of sites to test this concept

From proof of concept... (2)

Soybean grain yield (kg/ha)

2000

- inoc + inoc

1500

1000

500

0

Soybean input trial (TGx1740-2F); Nyanza, Western Kenya; long rains 2011 (F. Baijukya + team)

From proof of concept... (3)

Soybean input trial; Murehwa, Zimbabwe, season 2010/2011 (T. Mombeyarara + team)

... to understanding variability (1) • In first year already proof of valuable concept • But with testing technologies at scale in farmers fields: huge variability. • New questions: how to explain this variability? • More emphasis on analysis of simple, non-replicated demonstration trials under farmers’ management

... to understanding variability (2)

Control

+ inoculation

+ P-fertilizer

+ P-fert + inoc.

... to understanding variability (3)

Ghana, 2011

… to understanding variability (4) Time of planting

Soybean

Groundnut

Cowpea

< 15 July

1899

1403

731

July 15-31

1561

1015

2040

935

876

1126

August Soybean yield category

Time between inoculation and planting

0-500 kg

58 h

>500 kg

18 h

Groundnut yield category

Farm size (ha)

TLU

% female

0-500 kg

6.3

3.6

9.1

500-1000 kg

4.4

2.0

18.2

1000-1500 kg

3.9

2.6

25.0

>1500 kg

2.7

4.8

60.8

Targeting of technologies to farm types (1) • Factors influencing adoption: – Not only high crop yields – Need to fit within farming system (labour availability, tradeoff other crops)

• Need for ‘tailoring of technologies’ – Per agro-ecological zone – Per region – Per farm type

Targeting of technologies to farm types (2)

Country

Kenya

Rwanda

Nigeria

Malawi

Cereal Groundnut

Maize-bush bean Soybean Climbing beans intercrop

Grain yield (t/ha)

2,44

2,89

LUE (kg/h)

1,18

1,22

Grain yield (t/ha)

1,60

1,72

LUE (kg/h)

0,55

0,57

Grain yield (t/ha)

4,48

1,95

1,83

LUE (kg/h)

6,40

2,13

3,21

Grain yield (t/ha)

2,45

1,24

LUE (kg/h)

2,00

0,78

LUE = labour use efficiency

Targeting of technologies to farm types (2)

Country

Kenya

Rwanda

Nigeria

Malawi

Cereal Groundnut

Maize-bush bean Soybean Climbing beans intercrop

Grain yield (t/ha)

2,44

2,89

LUE (kg/h)

1,18

1,22

Grain yield (t/ha)

1,60

1,72

LUE (kg/h)

0,55

0,57

Grain yield (t/ha)

4,48

1,95

1,83

LUE (kg/h)

6,40

2,13

3,21

Grain yield (t/ha)

2,45

1,24

LUE (kg/h)

2,00

0,78

LUE = labour use efficiency

Targeting of technologies to farm types (2)

Country

Kenya

Rwanda

Nigeria

Malawi

Cereal Groundnut

Maize-bush bean Soybean Climbing beans intercrop

Grain yield (t/ha)

2,44

2,89

LUE (kg/h)

1,18

1,22

Grain yield (t/ha)

1,60

1,72

LUE (kg/h)

0,55

0,57

Grain yield (t/ha)

4,48

1,95

1,83

LUE (kg/h)

6,40

2,13

3,21

Grain yield (t/ha)

2,45

1,24

LUE (kg/h)

2,00

0,78

LUE = labour use efficiency

Dissemination approaches • Great diversity in opportunities legumes demands diversity in dissemination approaches • From uniform lead farmer – satellite farmer approach to dissemination approaches as part of research question • Work along partners in input/ output markets; enable access to inoculants

Conclusions • More emphasis on understanding variability yields in farmers’ fields – start with demonstration trials at scale; detailed agronomy trials for specific issues • Start with characterization of farming systems and farm types – ex ante impact assessment of how legumes fit best within a particular farming system • Adjust dissemination approaches, seed systems and extension messages accordingly

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