Researching a Global Phenomenon

January 13, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Sociology, Globalization
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

Download Researching a Global Phenomenon...

Description

English Medium Instruction as a Tool of Internationalization in Higher Education Ernesto Macaro University of Oxford: Department of Education

1

Overview • What should be the ‘approach’ with regard to EMI in HE? (Implementation Research) • What are the methodological challenges presented by EMI research ? • Some initial findings from a survey of 54 countries • A research agenda for EMI Oxford

2

Aims of EMI policy in Universities • To internationalise universities? • To facilitate learning of subjects by home students? • A way of ensuring that home students can compete in a world market? • To build/improve English language capacity of home country?

Are these aims shared by all participants? 3

Aims of EMI policy in universities • A new multilingual and multicultural tool for developing intercultural communication? • Authentic language learning? • A way of forcing change in HE pedagogy? Are these aims shared by all participants?

4

EMI Oxford: End-user research-driven approach to EMI English Medium Instruction

Evolution

University students University faculty

Policy makers School students

Secondary school teachers Parents

Employers

RESEARCH EVIDENCE

5

Phase 1 of project Aims: • To map the current situation • To identify future trends • Phase 2: online questionnaire investigating lecturer/teacher attitudes to EMI in their subject • Phase 3: in depth analysis of smaller number of countries: Turkey; Italy; Austria 7

Phase 1 Method • Open ended (essentially qualitative) questionnaire • Sent to British Council staff in 60 countries worldwide • Primary analysis of data • Follow up request to plug gaps • Secondary analysis of data: attempt to quantify • Caveat: Reliability of data

8

The Field: Public vs. Public Education Percentage of public vs. private universities

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40%

Private univer

30%

Public univers

20%

10% 0%

Countries and regions (n=36)

9

Pakistan

Indonesia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Hungary

Venezuela

Bahrain

United States

Argentina

Italy

Ghana

Bulgaria

Taiwan

Japan

Germany

Mainland China

Kazakhstan

Qatar

Cyprus

Saudi Arabia

Croatia

Greece

Hong Kong

Czech Republic

Afghanistan

Macedonia

South Africa

Serbia

Vietnam

Netherlands

Sri Lanka

Azerbaijan

Malaysia

The Field: Public vs. Public Education Percentage of public vs. private secondary schools

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30% private secondary schools

20% public secondary schools

10%

0%

Countries and regions (n=32)

10

In ‘your country’, is EMI officially ‘allowed’ in public sector? Primary Education Allowed Not allowed

n

percent

29 21

52.7 38.2

Secondary Education Allowed Not allowed Universities Allowed Not allowed

n 43 10

n

percent

39 13

70.9 23.6 percent 78.2 18.2

11

Do official policies or statements on EMI exist?

Not known Yes

No

13

Policy Changes in Past 10 Years? Not known No Yes

14

General trend in each country Not known Mixed Same

Less More

15

Examples of “Mixed Trends” Argentina

Azerbaijan Israel Turkey

“More, there is a trend towards increasing EMI at primary and secondary levels. State schools have mostly stayed away from it, despite some talks of including EMI in Buenos Aires.” “Public primary: less; public secondary: the same; public HE: more. Private primary, secondary and HE: more. “ “More, universities want to teach more in English. Schools are not moving in this direction.” “In HEIs, more. In state schools has become less with the abolishment of an initial year of EMI in the elite state Anadolu High Schools. The stated reason for abolishing EMI here is that pupils were performing poorly in science and mathematics.”

16

Official backing for ‘trends’ • Croatia: “In the context of the Bologna Process and increased international mobility as one of its priorities, the Ministry [has] Action Plan for the removal of obstacles and strengthening of the international mobility in education … including the increase in the number of study programmes offered in foreign languages”

17

Official backing for ‘trends’ • Uzbekistan: “The presidential decree of 2012 encourages English to be taught, spoken, and used for business communication at all levels and at any institution of Uzbekistan be it journalism, economics or staff of a ministry.”

18

Equivocal official backing • Hungary: “Government recognises the efficiency of EMI programmes, ….however, it claims that EMI affects only a small number of learners (equal opportunities), and it is costly to operate (exams, qualified teachers including native speaker teachers, and materials and textbooks). New government’s quality assurance measures might even lessen the number of currently run programmes.” 19

Public Opinion on EMI Not known In favour

Controversial

A

21

Reasons for public opinion to be in favour In favour

Globalization Modernization

Social elite

Status of English

Diverse linguistic needs

Employment / Education market

Attitudes of parents

22

Reasons why public opinion is divided Controversial / Against

Political reasons

Equality / Freedom of study

Poor comprehension

Demanding to learn many languages

Incompetent teachers / generation gap among teachers

Lack of policies

Protecting national languages / cultures

23

Are there enough qualified teachers to teach EMI?

Not known

Yes

No

24

Are there any written guidelines specifying how to teach in EMI?

Not known

Yes

No

25

Are there any written guidelines that specify Englishonly or permit/encourage codeswitching?

Not known

Yes

No

26

Any stated expectation of language proficiency to qualify as EMI teachers ? Not known Yes

No

30

Is there any provision for EMI on ITE?

Not known

Yes for both public and private Yes for private only

No

Is there any provision for EMI on TPD?

Not known

Yes for both public and private

No

Yes for private only

31

Initial conclusions from Phase 1 • Long way from a ‘global’ definition (and consensus!) of EMI and its purposes or objectives • Need: a research-driven process approach which consults stake-holders • Introduction of EMI in tertiary is opportunistic & instrumental: effect on secondary

32

Initial conclusions from Phase 1 • Trend is towards much more EMI • There is official backing but with some ‘interesting’ exceptions • Public opinion not wholehearted support: ‘controversial’ rather than ‘against’ • Concerns relate to: lack of qualified teachers; no stated expectations of English language proficiency; lack of structural or pedagogical guidelines; little EMI content in ITE and TPD courses 33

EMI Oxford Research Agenda • What is the current and predicted uptake of EMI globally? • Who or what is driving EMI implementation? • What are the different forms of EMI currently being developed? • What kind of English? Who owns the language? • What are the implications for teacher education, teacher educators and materials developers? • What are the most sustainable mechanisms of teacher education and development beyond the immediate period of engagement on a course? 35

EMI Oxford Research Agenda • What levels of English competence enable EMI teachers to provide quality instruction? • How would we measure the success of an EMI programme? Is the learning of academic subjects improved by EMI? Will it lead to deeper understanding? If so by which groups of students?

• To what extent do language assessment systems need to change (for teachers & students)? Validity of bilingual examinations? 36

EMI Oxford Research Agenda • How does classroom interaction change as the medium of instruction changes? • What are the psycholinguistic representations in the mental lexicon of abstract concepts encountered in academic subjects through EMI? • Do abstract concepts result in restructuring of a developing bilingual lexicon? 38

EMI Oxford Research Agenda • What strategies are used by students in EMI classrooms in oral and written comprehension tasks? • What are the psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic effects on students’ home language resulting from EMI used in various phases of education?

39

Thank you for listening! EMI Oxford Centre for Research and Development on English as Medium of Instruction Department of Education University of Oxford

For further information and particularly if you can help us publicise the online questionnaire contact: [email protected]

40

View more...

Comments

Copyright � 2017 NANOPDF Inc.
SUPPORT NANOPDF