Romantic Era 1825-1900

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Music, Music History
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Romantic Era 1825-1900

• 1828-1900 A.D. • “Romantic” – subjectivity, the expression of personal feelings, sentimentality, the occupation with nature, the interest in magic or fairy tale, intrigue into the supernatural, and a desire for freedom from limitations of conventional formal patterns and harmonic rules. • The Romantic period is basically characterized by its disregard of limitations and expansion of the Classical time period and forms

Romantic Era 1825-1900

• Duality – something having two parts • Romantic Dualities – the ability to have opposites in a song – Words and Music • • • •

Equal partnership of words and music Composers as the authors Inclusion of vocal music in instrumental works Program music

– Composer and Audience • Composed for specific performer(s) both commissioned and uncommissioned

Romantic Era 1825-1900

• Composed for performances before a circle of friends • Composed for unknown performers, unknown future audiences • Composed for personal expression without regard for audience

– Individual and Crowd • Virtuoso composer-performer with or without orchestra, accompaniment • Single performer in a solo recital • Conductor directing with baton, and standing between audience and performers • Composers not recognized as performers

Romantic Era 1825-1900

– Professional and Amateur

• Composer showing concern for amateur music making in the home, community, in addition to writing works for own use

– Sacred and Secular • Inclusion of religious texts in secular works • Settings of religious texts not suitable for church service

– Urban and Rural • Composers living in urban centers, writing for urban audiences, preoccupied with nature, composing program music of landscapes, seascapes, etc.

Romantic Era 1825-1900

– National and International

• Inclusion of folk songs and folk dance elements of own country and that of other countries • Expressions of patriotism, national senitment • Interest in Eastern exoticism

• Time Line – 1860: Unification of Italy – 1861-1865: American Civil War – 1861: Russia abolishes serfdom – 1870’s: Russo-Turkish War – weakens Ottoman empire and Russia expands into Central Asia

Romantic Era 1825-1900

– 1870: Franco-Prussian War – unification of Prussia (Germany) under Kaiser Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismark

• Rise of nationalism – patriotism to one’s country • Rise of imperialism – the expansion and conquest of major powers to colonize the Americas, Africa, and Far East • Rise of socialism - the state controls economy for the needs of society

Romantic Era 1825-1900

Romantic Era 1825-1900

• Technology

– 1877: Thomas Edison invents the phonograph – 1887: Gramophone invented – 1895: The first radio transmissions by the Marconi Company

Romantic Era 1825-1900 • Johannes Brahms – 1833-1897 – German composer, pianist – Composed music for piano, chamber music, symphonies, overtures, concertos, choral works – Moved to Vienna, composed music and concertized it to make a living – Most famous piece: Lullaby

Romantic Era 1825-1900

• Richard Wagner

– 1813-1883 – German composer – Mainly composed operas and dramas; also composed orchestral pieces, chamber music, and choral songs – Built his own ideal theater, meaning that he designed and built a theater to fit the needs of his operas – Designed his own instrument for this songs, called the Wagner Tuba

Romantic Era 1825-1900

Romantic Era 1825-1900 • Guiseppe Verdi – 1813-1901 – Italian composer – Composed operas, choral works, instrumental pieces – Meticulous composer, he would check word for word in any libretto that he would set music to and then change if he felt it was necessary

Romantic Era 1825-1900

• Franz Liszt

– 1811-1886 – Hungarian composer – Virtuoso pianist, composer, conductor, author, and teacher – Liszt began playing piano a very young age, and traveled while performing – He became tired of performing and wanted to be a priest, but when his father died, he decided to stay with music – Liszt traveled around Germany, to Paris, London, and parts of Italy performing and composing

Romantic Era 1825-1900 – When Liszt married, his wife convinced him to stop performing and to focus on composing – Liszt met Berlioz Wagner, and Chopin, who influenced his composing by introducing more Romantic elements into his songs – Liszt divorced, took kids and travelled – ended up in Rome to work on religious studies, to teacher, and some conducting – Died of pneumonia

Romantic Era 1825-1900

• Modest Musorsky – 1839-1881 – Russian composer, singer, and pianist – One of the big five Russian composers, the most talented and most nationalistic – Known for his nationalistic compositions

Romantic Era 1825-1900

• Antonin Dvorak – 1841-1904 – Czechoslovakian composer, pianist, violinist, conductor – Well known for spreading the music of bohemian composers to other countries – Known for the “New World” symphony

Romantic Era 1825-1900 • Pyotr Tchaikovsky – 1840-1893 – Russian composer, pianist, and writer – Composed 10 operas, 3 ballets, 6 symphonies, overtures, string quartets, piano trios, vocal works, and piano solos – Known for: “The Nutcracker” and the “1812 Overture”

Romantic Era 1825-1900 • Sergev Rakhmaninov – 1873-1943 – Russian composer, pianist, and conductor – Known for “Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini”

• Hugo Wolf – 1860-1903 – German composer, pianist, and violinist – Known for composing some of the best German songs set to poetry

Romantic Era 1825-1900 • Gustav Mahler – 1860-1911 – Austrian composer, conductor, and pianist – Conductor of the NY Metropolitan Opera, and NY Philharmonic – Composed nine symphonies and many German songs

Romantic Era 1825-1900

• Richard Strauss

– 1864-1949 – German composer, pianist, conductor

• Camille Saint-Saens – 1835-1921 – French composer, pianist, conductor

• Gabriel Faure – 1845-1924 – French composer, pianist, conductor

Romantic Era 1825-1900

• Claude Debussy

– 1862-1918 – Leading French composer, pianist, conductor

• Maurice Ravel – 1875-1937 – Leading French composer after Debussy’s death

• James Paine – 1839-1906 – American composer

Romantic Era 1825-1900

• Edward Macdowell

– 1860-1908 – American composer

• Amy Cheney Beach – 1867-1944 – American pianist, composer – First female American composer to be recognized

• Charles Ives – 1874-1954 – American composer

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