Slides: Assessing Intelligence - AP Psychology-NWHS

January 13, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Math, Statistics And Probability, Statistics
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Assessing Intelligence AP Psychology

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Alfred Binet  Alfred

Binet and his colleague Théodore Simon practiced a more modern form of intelligence testing  Developed questions that would predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system.

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Alfred Binet—Mental Age  Alfred

Binet was the first to develop a test to classify children’s mental abilities Did

not test mastery of schoolwork or what they should know after a specific class,  Rather a child’s mental abilities that included memory, attention, which he referred to as mental age (definition to follow).

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Alfred Binet—Mental Age

 There

are certain mental abilities that a person should be able to perform at a specific age- this is referred to as mental age.

 This

mental age described where a person should be intelligently.  For example: a 9 year old should have a mental age of 9.  If a child who is 11, but has a mental age of 5 would be considered or may have a disability

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The Stanford-Binet Test and Intelligent Quotient

 Lewis Terman

adapted Binet’s test for use in the United States, which he called the Stanford-Binet test

 William

Stern wrote the scoring criteria for the Stanford-Binet test through the development of the Intelligence quotient

+ Lewis Terman & William Stern Stanford-Binet IQ Test Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test IQ=(MA/CA)*100 IQ=Intelligence Quotient MA=Mental Age CA=Chronological Age A

score of 100 would be considered average

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Calculating Intelligence For an average 7 yr old…  MA=7  CA=7  IQ=(MA/CA)*100  IQ=(7/7)*100  IQ=1*100  IQ=100 (average)

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Calculating Intelligence For an average 11 yr old… MA=11 CA=11 IQ=(MA/CA)*100 IQ=(11/11)*100 IQ=1*100 IQ=100

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Calculating Intelligence For an above average 10 yr old…  MA=12  CA=10  IQ=(MA/CA)*100  IQ=(12/10)*100  IQ=1.2*100  IQ=120

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Calculating Intelligence For a below average 8 yr old… MA=6

CA=8 IQ=(MA/CA)*100 IQ=(6/8)*100

IQ=.75*100 IQ=75

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Calculating Intelligence

Formula

has been replaced with modern

versions A

glitch…

MA

levels off at about 18x

Average 18 yr old MA=18 CA=18 IQ=(18/18)*100 IQ=(1/1)*100=100

Average 36 yr old MA=18 CA=36 IQ=(18/36)*100 IQ=(1/2)*100=50

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Intelligence Tests How is intelligence measured?

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Intelligence Tests  Binet-Simon

scale

 First

test of intelligence, developed to identify children who might have difficulty in school  Binet developed the concept of mental age in children  Stanford-Binet  L. M. Terman’s

scale

adaptation of the Binet-Simon scale  Terman introduced the I.Q. score  A score of 100 is considered average

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Aptitude vs. Achievement Aptitude Tests  Designed

to make predictions about future performances  An ACT test is considered an aptitude test because the score is used as a predictor for success in college

Achievement Tests  Designed

to reflect what a person has learned, or mastered  A test you take in history would be an achievement test because it is assessing what you have learned in history

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David Wechsler  Wechsler

developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

 And

later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), an intelligence test for preschoolers.

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The WAIS

 The

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the most widely used intelligence test in the United States  The WAIS has 2 sets of tests, verbal scale and performance scale  WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 other aspects related to intelligence that are designed to assess clinical and educational problems.

+ WAIS

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Intelligence Tests  Group Tests  Intelligence

tests that can be given to large

groups  Advantages   

Quick scoring No examiner bias Easier to establish norms

 Disadvantages   

Less likely to detect someone who is ill or confused Might make people nervous Learning disabled children often perform worse

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Intelligence Tests  Performance

tests

 Tests

that minimize the use of language  Used to test very young children or people with retardation  Also can be used to test those unfamiliar with English  Culture-fair  Tests

tests

designed to reduce cultural bias  Minimize skills and values that vary from one culture to another

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Test Construction How is test data analyzed?

+ Principles of test Construction  Normal

Curve is a bell shaped curve that includes a normal distribution of scores half above the average and half below the average  with most scores falling right around the averagethe mean

+ Flynn Effect  In

the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points. This phenomenon is known as the Flynn effect.

 What

might be contributing to this?

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Principles of test Construction  Mean

is the average score

 median

is score in the middle- the high point of the curve

 mode

is the score or number that appears the most

 standard

deviation is how the scores deviate or spread from the mean  if the mean is 71 and a person scores a 4 then that score would have high, or great standard deviation

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Principles of test Construction

 Standardization

is defining present scores through comparison to a group who previously took the test that is called the representative sample

A

teacher often compares present class scores to past scores to ensure students learning the material.  For example if a class averaged 51 and the group who took the same test last year averaged 75, then the teacher may have not properly taught the material to the present group

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Principles of test Construction  Reliability

is the measure of giving a test multiple times and receiving similar scores each time the test is given  A test is considered reliable if each time that test is given similar results are posted.

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Principles of test Construction— Testing Reliability

 Alternative

form- giving alternatives of the same test  If you took test form B, you should get the same score if you took form A test

 Split-half-

calculating a score by dividing the test into different parts then comparing  Comparing the odd and even questions would be an example of split-half reliability.

 Test-retest-

giving the same test twice and then comparing the scores

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Principles of test Construction  Validity

is the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to measure

+ Principles of test Construction— Testing Validity  Content

validity- test measures the content it is supposed to measure 

If you are studying psychology, then you should take a psychology test- not a history test

 Construct

validity- test measures a specific theory, or

question 

Certain questions may be written to test if students are paying attention in class- based on lectures

 Predictive

validity- test makes predictions about future performances 

Certain questions may be written to test whether students will do well on the following chapter

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