Summer Workshop - Accessible Education Center

January 8, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Psychology, Abnormal Psychology
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Project EXCEL-UO Summer Institute 2011 Expanding Cultural Awareness of Exceptional Learners at the University of Oregon

1

Project EXCEL-UO Overview

Train-thetrainer

Web-based Resources

CULTURE CHANGE

Print Resources

2

Training Activities Day

Theme

1

Awareness—Defining and Understanding

2

History, Laws, Accommodations, University Supports Universal Design, Planning, Delivering, Evaluating Instruction Developing Goals and Spreading Information

3 4

3

Day 1 Agenda       

Concept of Normality Terminology/Communication Children and Youth College Students and Disability Types LUNCH Universal/Inclusive Design Student Panel 4

Concept of Normality 

Brief Overview of Normal Distribution



Defining normality and abnormality (Testing)



Social Construction of Disability • Why categories exist? 5

6

Constructs of Disability

(based on the work of Carol Gill, Chicago Institute of Disability Research)

Medical

Sociopolitical

Disability is a deficiency or abnormality Disability resides in the individual



Disability is a difference





The remedy for disability-related problems is cure or normalization of the individual





The agent of remedy is the professional who affects the arrangements between the individual and society



Disability derives from interaction between individual and society The remedy for disability-related problems is a change in the interaction between the individual and society The agent of remedy can be the individual, an advocate, or anyone who affects the arrangements between the individual and society





7

Terminology      



People first language – students with disabilities Ask, don’t make assumptions Talk directly Speak normally Be aware of personal space Avoid offensive terms, such as restricted to a wheelchair, victim of, suffers from, retarded, deformed, crippled. If you are unsure, ask the person with a disability what terminology is preferred. 8

Facts About Children & Youth 

Approximately 10-12% of students aged 6-21 are receiving special education services in public elementary, middle, and high schools (U.S. Department of Education, 2005)

9

Range of Disabilities Among Children & Youth High Incidence Categories Low Incidence Categories

• • • • •

Learning Disabilities (LD) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Speech Language Disorders (SLD) Emotional & Behavioral (EBD)/Psychological Mild Mental Retardation (MMR)

• • • • • • •

Visual/Blind Hearing Impair/Deaf Physical/Orthopedic Disabilities Traumatic Brain Injured Autism Moderate & Severe Mental Retardation Multiple Disabilities

10

Autism, 2.3 Visual, 0.4 Orhopedic, 1.1

Multiple, 2.5

TBI, 0.4 DD, 1.1

Hearing, 1.2 Other Health, 7.5

Emotional/ Behav, 8

Learning Disability, 47.4

Mental Retardation, 9.6

Speech/ Language, 18.7 11

Major Differences between K-12 and University Settings K-12 

    



IDEA Mandates Free Appropriate Public Ed Child Find Zero Reject 15 federally defined Categories Mandated Supports and Services including major modifications as needed Funding

College/University  Civil rights law (to prevent discrimination)  Self-Disclosure  Qualify for admission 

Broad definition, (record of impairment or substantial limitations in major life activity



Reasonable Accommodations that do NOT fundamentally alter program requirements



Limited Funding 12

Basic facts about College & University 



Approximately 60% of students without disabilities attend some form of postsecondary school following high school (NCES, 2006) Approximately 42% of students with disabilities report having been enrolled (2 years prior to interview, NLTS2)

• •

Students with disabilities that do attend are approximately 5X more likely to be attending 2-year community colleges or vocational/technical schools rather than 4-year universities. In contrast, students without disabilities are most likely to attend 4 year colleges (3 x’s) rather than 2-year or vocational.

13

Percentage of Students With Disabilities in Universities 

Approximately 9% of students at 4-year doctorate degree granting (public & private) institutions report having some form of a disability (NCES, 2006).

• 

Definition in university context is broader than in K-12

At the University of Oregon, approximately 4% of students report having a disability.



Disclosure in university context vs. disclosure in a survey. 14

Number of Self-Identified Students at UO, OSU, & OUS Over Time 3372 3300

2942

3000 2700

2319

2400

2044

2100 1800

UO (Unduplicated)

1550

OSU (Unduplicated)

1500

OUS (Unduplicated)

1200

2001

2003

2005

2007

599

761

553

472

553

592

434

0

353

300

412

600

682

900

2009 15

Percentage of Self-Identified Students With Disabilities of Overall Student Population 5

4

UO

3

OSU 2

OUS

1

0 2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

16

Proportion of Students by Category 100 90 80 70

National

60 50

UO

40 30 20 10 0

r

l ua

ic ed

ng ri

e th O

is V

ea H

p ho rt O

h

h lt

c sy

D H

ea H

P

D A

LD

Note. Other at UO includes head injury, seizure, autism spectrum. USDOE, NCES 2006-184.

17

Disabilities In The University Context We’re going to talk about disabilities by providing an overview with medical labels, common characteristics, and typical college student experiences.

• • • • • • • • •

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Learning Disabilities (LD) Brain Injury Health Conditions Psychological/ Mental Health Asperger’s Syndrome Mobility Hearing/Deafness Vision/Blindness 18

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Defining 

Inattention



Hyperactivity



Impulsivity



Age of Onset—Explicit age-of-onset requirement evidence of impairment before 7 years of age. Impairment present in two or more settings Clear evidence of clinically significant impairment from symptoms in social, academic or occupational functioning

 

19

ADHD: Challenges in College       

Taking notes Maintaining attention and focus Meeting deadlines Organization (study strategies, writing) Time Management Processing speed (especially reading) Interpersonal relationships (roommate issues) 20

ADHD Activity http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/misunderstoodmi nds/experiences/attexp1a.html

Question/Discussion on ADHD?

21

Learning Disability Definition: 

A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations, including such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.



The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage

22

Learning Disability-Identification 

Identification

• •

• •

Traditionally LD has been identified as a discrepancy between IQ or “capacity” and achievement “performance” in one or more areas, reading, written language, mathematics. By far, the largest proportion of students with LD are identified due to difficulties in processing written language in the area of reading. Increasingly identified by Response to Intervention (RTI) Age of Onset-Primarily Childhood

23

24

Learning Disabilities: Potential Challenges in College       



Reading Comprehension Reading Speed Spelling – in class writing Quick responses on exams Organization of writing Comprehending and using spoken language Technical vocabulary Mathematics—Lesser extent

By the time enrolled in college, Students with LD may have developed compensatory strategies to deal with challenges. 25

Oral Language– the embedded curriculum  Activity

• Tell a round robin story.

Each participant add a sentence. The first sentence is— ”Yesterday I went to the grocery store to buy some vegetables”

• Now we are going to retell the story (with a twist).

“N”

26

Simulations 

Other Simulations

• Perception • Figure (Perception) • Color/Word (Processing Conflict) • Auditory Information • Decoding (Reading processing)

27

Group Activity 

In pairs, discuss what you expect of students: • How might your course design/requirements create barriers for students with LD or ADHD?

• Memory • Organization or Time Management • Oral Language • Reading • Writing • Math • Attention & Hyperactivity

28

Brain Injury and Concussion 

Disturbance in brain function caused by a blow or jolt to the head



Usually period of altered consciousness (amnesia or coma) – from very brief (minutes) to very long (months/indefinitely)



May impact visual, aural, neurologic, perceptive/cognitive, orthopedic, or mental/emotional areas



Severity ranges from "mild," (a brief change in mental status or consciousness) to "severe” (extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia)

29

Brain Injury: Some Potential Areas of Difficulty Depends on location and severity of injury  Processing speed  Reasoning/calculation  Judgment  Memory/Concentration  Speech  Physical functions/Motor skills  Personality changes, mood swings  Organizational abilities may be impacted  Sleep 30

Brain Injury – What you can do 



  

Be consistent - helps improve memory, reduce confusion, promote emotional control Provide structure - Give step by step instructions Allow response time Frequent repetition Avoid overstimulation 31

Health Conditions-Defining 

Includes a range of medical conditions that can have a temporary or chronic impact on academic performance, i.e. Arthritis, Cancer, Multiple Sclerosis, Asthma, AIDS, Cerebral Palsy, Diabetes, Fibromyalgia, and heart disease.



Medication side effects and the secondary effects of chronic illness can impact memory, attention, strength, endurance, and energy levels. 32

Health—Potential College Challenges    



  

Fatigue Pain Concentration Memory Maintaining consistent class attendance due to fluctuations in health condition and need for treatments Limited mobility Diminished stamina for long writing or reading assignments. Tolerance of stress 33

Psychological/Mental Health 

Covers a broad range including Bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, chronic mental illness



Often functioning can be greatly improved with medication, therapy, and social support

34

Bipolar Disorder Bipolar Disorder  Symptoms of bipolar disorder are more severe than the normal ups and downs that everyone goes through from time to time. 

Age of Onset – Adolescence/Early Adulthood - At least half of all cases start before age 25. Some people have their first symptoms during childhood, while others may develop symptoms late in life.

NIMH (2009)

35

Depression--Definition People with depressive illnesses do not all experience the same symptoms. The severity, frequency and duration of symptoms will vary depending on the individual and his or her particular illness. Symptoms include:  Persistent sad, anxious or "empty" feelings  Feelings of hopelessness and/or pessimism  Feelings of guilt, worthlessness and/or helplessness  Irritability, restlessness  Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable, including sex  Fatigue and decreased energy  Difficulty concentrating, remembering details and making decisions  Insomnia, early–morning wakefulness, or excessive sleeping  Overeating, or appetite loss  Thoughts of suicide, suicide attempts  Persistent aches or pains, headaches, cramps or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment 

Age of Onset—Between the ages of 30-40

36

Bipolar and/or Depression: Potential College Challenges Cont.     

 

Attendance Concentration Adjustment to Medications Meeting Deadlines Tolerance for Stress Financial Stresses Processing Speed 37

Anxiety Disorder—Defined 

Anxiety is a normal reaction to stress. It helps one deal with a tense situation in the office, study harder for an exam, keep focused on an important speech. In general, it helps one cope. But when anxiety becomes an excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations, it has become a disabling disorder.



Five major types of anxiety disorders are:

• • • • •

Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder OCD, Panic Disorder Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Social Phobia (or Social Anxiety Disorder) (NIMH, 2009) 38

Anxiety Disorders: Potential College Challenges Cont. 







Being comfortable in a classroom environment Engagement and participation High stress situations - Taking examinations, answering questions, group or individual presentations. Meeting deadlines. Course content, such as war or domestic violence images or discussions can be triggers 39

Psychological: College Challenges 





Poor concentration, fatigue, anxiety, irritability, apathy, problems with perception, physical symptoms Medications can cause undesirable side effects, ie. disorientation, drowsiness, lack of creativity When treatment is effective periods of active symptoms may be infrequent 40

Psychological – What you can do   



 

Listen to student’s needs or concerns Engage student in conversation if invited by student Invite student to meet with you if you have concerns about performance, attendance, etc.. Be aware of campus resources – Disability Services, Counseling Center, Office of Student Life Take seriously any reference to suicidal ideation Recognize that getting to class and/or engaging with academic work may be a huge undertaking

41

Asperger's Syndrome 





 

Social Interactions – challenge understanding obvious and subtle social cues and rules; failure to develop developmentally appropriate peer relationships Communication Skills – very literal and concrete, may blurt out thoughts, limited use of gestures, precocious speech, may have restricted interests, repetitive behaviors (especially when stressed) Change is very hard- inflexible adherence to nonfunctional routines or behaviors. Likes rules! Needs to find interest or relevance to be motivated. Sensory sensitivities – smell, textures light, sound 42

Asperger’s - What you can do 

 



Provide very concrete and specific instructions – rules to follow When possible relate to area of interest Make any changes as predictable and structured as possible Be aware of hypersensitivities to light, noise, smell etc. 43

Mobility Impairment--Define 

Orthopedic or neuromuscular conditions can impact mobility and/or hand functions.



Spinal Cord Injury (paraplegia or quadriplegia), Cerebral Palsy, Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis, amputation, Muscular Dystrophy, cardiac conditions, Arthritis, and respiratory diseases



Movement and function may be facilitated by canes, walkers, prostheses, or wheelchairs , as well as splints or braces



Very wide range of experiences, specific diagnoses, prognoses, and severity 44

Mobility: Possible Challenges and College 









Manipulation of objects: grasping, writing, or typing Turning pages, retrieving research materials Physical access to classrooms, offices, and programs -Identifying accessible seating Increased time to travel between classes Decreased endurance for extended activity

45

Mobility - Non-classroom Challenges       

 

Heavy doors Cracks in sidewalks Steep ramps/ pathways Crowds Inaccessible restrooms Inattentiveness of others while walking Power outages – no elevator access Slick sidewalks due to rain or ice and snow Difficulty transporting books and equipment due to needing arms and hands free 46

Hearing Impairments & Deafness— Definition ~ Frank Bender 

Hearing impairment is a broad term used to describe the loss of hearing in one or both ears. There are different levels of hearing impairment:

• •



Hearing impairment refers to complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears. Can be mild, moderate, severe or profound; Deafness refers to the complete loss of ability to hear from one or both ears.

There are two types of hearing impairment:

• •

Conductive hearing impairment - a problem in the outer or middle ear. This is often medically or surgically treatable, if there is access to the necessary services. Childhood middle ear infection is a common cause Sensorineural hearing impairment - usually due to a problem with the inner ear, and occasionally with the hearing nerve going from there to the brain. This type of hearing problem is usually permanent and requires rehabilitation, such as with a hearing aid. Common causes are excessive noise, aging and trauma. (World Health Organization, 2009)

47

48

College Challenges for Students with Hearing Impairment and Those Who are Deaf  





Unaware of the degree of their hearing loss Following lecture materials, taking effective notes, working in groups, and physical and emotional challenges associated with fatigue. Emotional barriers impeding requests for support, utilizing campus resources, or open to using technology supports. A feeling of both ability level and cultural isolation & frustration.

49

Supports for Students with Hearing Impairments or those Who are Deaf 







Communication may be enhanced via speech, hearing aids, lip reading, or use of an interpreter utilizing sign language. FM or infrared amplification systems may be used (amplifies sound from microphone to receiver) Many people who are Deaf learn American Sign Language (ASL) as their first language, and English as their second language. ASL is a distinct language with unique characteristics

• •

When utilizing an interpreter – speak to the student. This could also impact writing skills. 50

Strategies to Support Students with Hearing Impairments or those Who are Deaf—What You Can Do    



 

When communicating with student, always face the student. Facial expressions, gestures, and body language will help convey your message. Use visual aids (PPT, Notes, etc.) Try to avoid writing on the white/chalk board and talking at the same time – if so, repeat paraphrase your message to the class. Be aware of your speech volume and pace Check for comprehension – A good strategy for entire class. Be open to the use of FM technology 51

Current Hearing Technology

52

Visual Impairments & Blindness-Definition 

Three categories: 1) Restricted Central Visual Acuity 2) Visual Field Loss -Restricted Peripheral Vision 3) Difficulty with focusing and eye movements (Focusing or binocular coordination)



"Low vision" a severe visual impairment applied to individuals with sight who are unable to read the newspaper at a normal viewing distance, even with the aid of eyeglasses or contact lenses. They use a combination of vision and other senses to learn, although they may require adaptations in lighting or the size of print, and, sometimes, Braille.



“Legally blind" person has less than 20/200 vision in the better eye or a very limited field of vision (20 degrees at its widest point)



Totally blind students have no vision and often learn via Braille and/or auditory

53

Blindness or Low Vision: Potential College Challenges • • • • • • •

• •

Reading Course material Following visual information presented in class Becoming oriented to campus, and traveling throughout campus Taking notes during class Writing papers Responding to written exams Lack of accessibility of some web pages, pdfs, and other electronic resources Technology failures Effectively studying visually based concepts 54

Vision—What You Can Do 







Determine reading materials far in advance (when possible make available in electronic format) Describe visually presented information, be aware of print size in lectures Minimize non-text content in exam/quizzes Advance copies of lecture notes, slides, etc.. 55

Student Veterans 

“Wounded Warriors”



Head injury (different than past wars – higher survival rate, head trauma often resulting from reverberations of loud blasts, as opposed to direct impact to the head)



Mobility



Hearing



Psychological 56

Universal and Inclusive Design

Molly Sirois Advisor, Disability Services 164 Oregon Hall 541-346-1073 [email protected]

57

Constructs of Disability

(based on the work of Carol Gill, Chicago Institute of Disability Research)

Medical

Sociopolitical

Disability is a deficiency or abnormality Disability resides in the individual



Disability is a difference





The remedy for disability-related problems is cure or normalization of the individual





The agent of remedy is the professional who affects the arrangements between the individual and society



Disability derives from interaction between individual and society The remedy for disability-related problems is a change in the interaction between the individual and society The agent of remedy can be the individual, an advocate, or anyone who affects the arrangements between the individual and society





58

Human Variation Model  Disability defined as a mismatch between physical and mental attributes and the ability of social institutions to incorporate those attributes Shriner & Scotch, 2001

59

Universal Design (UD)

• The design of products and environments to be usable by as many people as possible regardless of age, ability, or situation without the need for adaptation or accommodation 60

Universal Design in Education • The design of instructional materials and activities that makes learning goals achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember. continued

61

Universal Design in Education 



Universal design for learning is achieved by means of flexible curricular materials and activities that provide alternatives for students with differing abilities. These alternatives are built into the instructional design and operating systems of educational materials. They are not added on after-the-fact. (Research Connections, Number 5, Fall 1999, p. 2)

62

Student Panel Undergraduate and Graduate students with disabilities share their experiences as college students.

63

Final Activity 

Take a few minutes to write • Three things you learned and • One thing you would like to know.

 Things

to REMEMBER!! Please bring one of your course syllabi on Day 3!!! 64

Day 2: Agenda History and Laws

• Special Education • Federal Legislation • Law and Universities

How it Works on College Campuses

• General Resources • Documentation and Notification • Accommodations and Other Strategies 65

History and Laws 

History of Special Education • IQ testing • Civil rights movement • State initiatives • University of Oregon

66

Historical & Current Outcomes   





Employment Earnings Independent Living Post-Secondary

• • •

Training, 2 Year, 4 year Attendance vs. graduation Increasing numbers

Potential causes of poor outcomes 67

Legal Issues Heidi von Ravensberg, JD, MBA Adjunct Instructor School of Law University of Oregon (541) 346-2472 [email protected] 68

Federal Legislation: Overview   



  

***1973 Vocational Rehabilitation Act (Sec. 504) 1974 Educational Amendments Act 1974 Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) 1986 Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments **1990 and 2008 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 1990 & 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 69

Law and Universities 

Non-Discrimination





Section 504 (1973 Voc. Rehab. Act) mandates that any public institution of higher education that receives federal funding including financial aid can not discriminate against otherwise qualified students with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (1990 ADA) mandates that any public or private institution with 15 or more employees can not discriminate against otherwise qualified individuals with disabilities.

• Admissions • Education • Exit Requirements

70

Admissions 

 

Students must be qualified - meet academic and technical standards required for admission No quotas on admission Confidentiality - Cannot inquire about a disability

71

The Enrolled Student  

Reasonable accommodations Modifications to policies, practices and procedures

• • •

Architectural barrier removal Provision of auxiliary aids and services The institution must make only reasonable accommodations or modifications:

• • • •

To students who have disclosed and documented their disability No undue financial or administrative burden Does not fundamentally or substantially alter major program or degree requirements Is not a direct threat to health or safety

72

Appropriate educational adjustments INCLUDE 

Accommodations must be made to allow meaningful access to education.



Requires one to distinguish between thinking and learning processes that are affected by LD or ADHD and thinking or learning processes that are essential to the academic integrity of a program.



Sec. 504 provides examples -- taped texts, substitution of required courses, adapting the manner in which something is taught or assessed -- but provides no guidance on how to apply these accommodations. 73

Academic Standards 



Institutions are not required to make accommodations that would lower academic standards or compromise integrity of programs or schools. However, important to be able to justify how an alteration would lower the academic standards.

74

Legal Decisions 

Determining Reasonableness of the Requested Accommodation

• •



Courts will defer to the institution’s determination where the facts add up to a professional academic judgment Courts want to make sure institution goes through specific process (did relevant officials consider the range of accommodations, feasibility, cost and effect on the academic program and come to a rationally justifiable conclusion that the available alternatives would result either in lowering academic standards or requiring substantial program alteration.)

Wynne v. Tufts University School of medicine, 932 F.2d 19 (1st Cir. 1991). 75

Types of Accommodations    

     

Auxiliary aids and services Assistance animals Barrier removal Reduced course loads Incompletes Refrain from academic suspension or termination Substitution of courses Waiver of courses Exam accommodations Excuse or accommodate behavior or conduct

76

Legal Decisions 



 

Requested accommodations were ordered or found reasonable Extra time to take exam or complete course of study Retake examinations or courses Modified curriculum or course substitutions

• •

Receive incomplete in course Refrain from suspending from academic program

77

How it Works on College Campuses 



Typically one office is responsible for determining eligibility and coordinating the provision of accommodations The entire institution is responsible for making sure the campus is inclusive and welcoming to all students

78

University of Oregon Disability Services 164 Oregon Hall (541) 346-1155 [email protected]

79

College Disability Resource Offices

• • • • • • •

Determine eligibility for accommodations, and coordinate as needed Facilitate removal of barriers: architectural, curricular, attitudinal Empower students to articulate their needs and self-advocate Provide guidance on academic issues/decisions Work with faculty and others to increase access for all students, and to provide individual student accommodations when needed Serve as a resource to university community Develop disability related institutional policies and procedures 80

Other Support  

  

Time management/organizational skills Specific study strategies Academic Planning Teaching self-advocacy/ selfdetermination Conferencing

81

Other UO Resources      

University Counseling Center Academic Advising Teaching and Learning Center Office of Dean of Students Career Center University Health Center

82

Sample Syllabus Statement The University of Oregon is working to create inclusive learning environments. Please notify me if there are aspects of the instruction or design of this course that result in barriers to your participation. You may also wish to contact Disability Services in 164 Oregon Hall at 346-1155 or [email protected] 83

Course Syllabi 

Procedural Considerations • Adding a disability statement • Working in pairs develop a statement for students with disabilities that could be included in your course outline. • Report Out 84

How you “Invite” Students to Discuss Barriers/Needs  



In pairs, think about the first day of class. Do you think you could say or do something that would make students with disabilities more comfortable “disclosing” and talking with you? Write a brief example.

85

Documentation 



  

Students identify disability and provide documentation. Meet with student and review all info, including history, report of experience, other sources (parent/teacher reports) Substantial limitation in a major life activity Diagnosis, Functional Limitations Impact in academic environment

86

Confidentiality of Documentation 





Disability related information is confidential. The DS office is charged with maintaining this confidentiality. Typically students will want to discuss accommodation needs directly with instructors, and often will share specific relevant information. However, it is the student’s choice whether or not to disclose information, such as the type of disability. 87

Determination of Accommodations 

  

One of the ways that we meet our legal obligations and support students is through the accommodation process. Enable an “otherwise qualified” individual to have an equal opportunity to participate. Focus of all accommodations is to mitigate the effects of disability Designed on an individual basis, may vary from class to class for the same person, i.e. notetaker in one setting, lab assistant in another. 88

Proactive Considerations for Determining Appropriate Accommodations 

Is the individual “Otherwise Qualified?”



Is the requested accommodation an “appropriate or reasonable academic adjustment?”



Would the accommodation require a substantial modification to an “essential” element of a program? 89

Other Accommodation Considerations 

Reasonable accommodations should not result in the lowering of academic standards or alteration of the fundamental nature of a course or program.



Denying an accommodation must only be done after careful consideration by qualified professionals who are knowledgeable about disability and legal implications. It is never appropriate for faculty or staff to deny a requested accommodation without documented consultation. 90

Discussion: Are These Reasonable Accommodations? 







A student with visual processing challenges requests to not have to write a required paper Student with a learning disability in writing asks to spell check quiz Student with a serious documented illness misses four weeks of your class Elevator malfunctions and as a result a student misses a midterm 91

Notification Letters  





Outlines recommended accommodations May be individualized for a specific class or situation, or may be very generic and stable over time (i.e. extra time on all exams) Appropriate to have a private discussion with student about their needs and perceptions of any barriers in a particular course The student chooses how much personal information to share 92

Notification Activity 





Imagine that Kevin comes to you at the beginning of the first class, hands you his notification letter and then goes back to his seat. OR Kevin sends you an email letting you know that he has a notification letter. In pairs, discuss how this process of notification could be improved 93

Typical Accommodations • • •

• •

• • •

Electronic Formats of Readings Class Relocation Tests and Quizzes

• • • •

Separate Testing Environment Additional Time On Exams Modified Exam Format Assistive Technology

Notetaking Sign Language Interpreters Flexible Attendance Policies Course Substitutions Decelerated program 94

Alternate Print Formats Most appropriate for students  who are unable to or have difficulty with reading standard print (blindness; low vision; visual focusing/tracking; attention problems)  Who have difficulty with reading speed and/or reading comprehension Most commonly electronic formats are prepared for access to speech output, enlarged font, and Braille formats. 95

Alternate Print Formats – What you can do  





Order textbooks or course packets early Ask publishers if they have an accessible electronic version available before you commit to a particular text Identify the order of readings early, especially if using excerpts or partial textbooks. Be aware of access when posting online 96

Class Relocation Necessary in cases where  a student is unable to physically get into the building or classroom  The distance or terrain between classes is not able to be navigated, so they may need to be clustered closer together

97

Class Relocation and Mobility Challenges – what you can do 







Be sensitive to the fact that some students may have difficulty traveling between classes quickly. If a class or class related activity is held in an alternate location, ie. Library, Museum, be aware of possible transportation challenges Be aware of the layout of the classroom and any need for adjustable desks, etc.. Report unsafe or hazardous conditions 98

Tests/Quizzes 





When test accommodations cannot be provided by the instructor, students may request that Disability Services coordinate this process The student submits an online request AFTER the student has met with the instructor, and discussed accommodations and test parameters The request should be made early, but no later than 5 working days before the test. Disability Services works in collaboration with the Testing Center to facilitate this process. 99

Separate Testing Environment Most appropriate for students who have difficulty with:  Visual distractions  Any type of noise  Extreme anxiety around performance  Perceptions that others are watching them  Need to verbalize questions or move around

100

Testing EnvironmentsWhat you can do  

 



Discuss accommodation needs privately with student Respond in a timely manner if tests are being proctored by Disability Services and information or confirmation is requested Minimize test scheduling changes whenever possible Consider whether you or your department has access to an appropriate quiet place for students to take exams/quizzes For larger classes, consider offering an alternate administration in a smaller room with a proctor, ie. GTF who can respond to questions 101

Additional Time on Exams Most appropriate for students who 

   



Experience slower processing speed (i.e. ability at 97%, processing speed 3%) Experience memory/retention problems Need more time to write and organize thoughts Experience slow reading speed Need a scribe, reader, computer assisted, or modified format Experience panic or an inability to think through problems when under intense time pressure 102

Additional Time on Exams – What you can do 



Some students prefer to take exams with their class, but need additional time. Consider allowing such a student to start the exam earlier, or move to an alternate location at the end of the exam for additional time. Consider designing tests so that there is additional time built in to the structure for all students 103

Modified Exam Format Most appropriate for students who have difficulty or are unable to demonstrate their knowledge in certain formats. For example: • A student may need a Braille version of an exam, a reader, or to utilize speech technology. • A student who is not able to accurately fill in the bubbles on a scantron sheet may need to mark off answers . • A student unable to write may need to respond to questions on a computer or to a scribe • For performance or studio based courses, an alternate format may be reasonable, i.e. videotaped presentation, oral in front of instructor instead of entire class 104

Modified Exam Format – What you can do 



Consider the feasibility of offering more than one exam format for all students, ie. take home version or in class version. Prepare exams in Word with simple text (limited graphics). This format is the easiest for creating other formats, ie. Braille.

105

Modifications to Course Requirements 

In many cases small adjustments to existing course requirements may be appropriate. For example, a student who experiences panic attacks, or stutters, or has great difficulty with speech fluency, may be allowed to write a paper in place of giving a presentation. Alternatives to group work may be appropriate in some classes. 106

Discussion Question  What

are some strategies to minimize the need for individualized test format accommodations or modifications to course requirements in your course? 107

Assistive Technology 

   

Scanned materials to speech. Most commonly used by students who either are unable to read standard print (low vision, or blind) or have significant difficulty with reading speed or comprehension, and learn more effectively through auditory input Voice recognition Enlarged text Alternate formats Range of different inputs (puff switch, alternative keyboards, etc…)

. 108

Notetaking Most appropriate for students who have difficulty • Writing (fine motor movement, paralysis, pain in hand, fingers, or wrist) • Processing auditory information • With focus and concentration – trouble listening and writing at the same time • Hearing clearly enough to accurately take notes • Seeing visual material presented, or seeing well enough to write or type notes, switching eye focus from paper to screen or instructor

109

Notetaking – What you can do 

  

 

Consider making outlines and/or notes available to all students (rotate volunteers) Allow students to record lectures to supplement notes Allow students to use laptops Present new or technical vocabulary visually, use in context Prepare lecture outline and make available in advance Respond quickly to requests to help identify a volunteer notetaker

110

Sign Language Interpreters 





Provided when American Sign Language is the most effective form of communication Classes, meetings with instructors, study groups, any class related activity When requested, campus events and programs

111

Sign Language Interpreters – What you can do 





Make sure that any video clips, movies, etc. are captioned, provide scripts when available Provide an additional copy of the textbook or other materials to the sign language interpreter Be aware that lighting can be a challenge especially in darker rooms 112

Flexible Attendance Policies 

It may be appropriate to be more flexible with strict attendance criteria in cases where a student is experiencing significant medical challenges, and unavoidably misses classes, i.e. surgery, chronic illness flare up, manic episode, chemotherapy treatment, serious depression, or blood transfusions… 113

Activity 

Sierra is going through chemotherapy treatments and misses 3 consecutive weeks of class.

• Working in pairs, think about one of your classes. • Describe two or three accommodations that might be reasonable for this student.

114

Decelerated Program 





Some students need to complete their undergraduate or graduate degrees over a longer than typical period of time. A student may need to reduce their per term course load because of medical conditions. There can be financial aid and scholarship implications. 115

Course Substitutions May be considered for students who are unable to meet specific academic requirements due to the impact of a disability. These may occur at the departmental level with academic major requirements, or at the institutional level with general education. 

For example, a student who is deaf may be allowed to meet reading competency requirements and have a cultural component substitute for an oral component of meeting the BA language requirement. A student with a severe math disability may be allowed to substitute computer based, or logic courses. 116

Many Accommodations Occur Outside of Classroom/Lab Settings        

Housing Recreational Programs/events Student Union Libraries Museums Student Employment Tutoring/Support Programs 117

Scenario Activity 



Sarah contacts you by email to report that she has just been released from two days in the hospital due to “stress”, and has been unable to attend class for the past 5 days. She has a midterm exam tomorrow. How might you respond, what other information would you want to have? What would you do?

118

Scenario Considerations 

Separate the immediate issue of the exam tomorrow from the medical situation that may or may not be an ongoing concern.

119

What if you found out that: •





She is a freshman who just broke up with her boyfriend of 2 years OR She has Bipolar Disorder and stopped taking her medications last week OR She is a returning veteran and a tire blow out (like a bomb blast) on the freeway triggered a full panic attack – she felt safer at the VA hospital 120

Final Activity



If you wanted to tell other faculty members in your department two important things about accommodating students with disabilities what would they be? Please bring a syllabus tomorrow

121

Day 3: Practice - Agenda  

Universal Design – an Overview Adaptive Technology Center

• Creating an Accessible PDF and Syllabus •





Considerations Demonstration of Kurzweil 3000

Universal Design and Blackboard Universal Design: Designing, Delivering and Evaluating Instruction 122

Day 3: Practice Today we want to focus on Instruction. In doing so, we want to spend time thinking about the following:  Designing Instruction—Syllabi, Course Planning— continuation of yesterday afternoon  Delivering Instruction-Teaching strategies  Evaluating Students 

Rather than thinking about these issues as pertaining ONLY to students with disabilities, we want to think about strategies that are good for students with disabilities but also good for all students.

123

Universal Design: An Overview 

What is Universal Design?

• • •

The philosophy comes from the disciplines of engineering and urban planning based upon the premise of universal access for all individuals. In terms of developing and building a community, the core value would be to permit the optimal accessibility for all individuals without having to make special accommodations by the nature of the pre-planned design. The following factors would be considered: Safety, engineering options, environmental issues, aesthetics, and cost (North Carolina Center for Universal Design). 124

What’s UD’s Connection to Education and the UO? 

Principles of UD are now being incorporated within the educational continuum.



Why? With such student diversity, using a UD preplanned approach will provide access to learning to a greater number of students and will potentially reduce the need for individual accommodations.



A pre-planned UD approach to learning and instruction will benefit both the student and the professor/instructor. 125

Universal Design for Learning and Instruction Universal Design for Learning (UDL): Developed by Center for Applied Technology (CAST). UDL is a student-focused method that provides strategies and advocacy skills to students to help improve their access and understanding of the course material.  Universal Design for Instruction (UDI): Developed by researchers from University of Connecticut. UDI is an approach to college instruction that anticipates diversity of learners and provides a framework for university faculty to incorporate inclusive strategies into their teaching. Websites: CAST: 

126

Examples of UDI 





Planning for Instruction • Physical Characteristics of Class Room Setting • Syllabi Delivery: Instruction & Curriculum: • Interaction • Material/Information Delivery • Informational Resources and technology • Environment: Class Climate Evaluating Instruction: Assessment: • Feedback Mechanisms • Clear Communication and Expectations • Assessment Administration and Rubrics

127

Adaptive Technology Center James Bailey, Adaptive Technology Access Adviser 140 Knight Library 1299 University of Oregon Eugene, OR 97403-1299 541-346-1076 [email protected]

128

Adaptive Technology Center – Purpose



Support adaptive technology across campus



Support students using adaptive technology



Provide alt-text conversion to students



Advise on accessible electronic documents



Advise on accessible web

129

Alternative Texts 

A very critical area for student success



Required by students who are blind or lowvision



Required by students with reading LD



Faculty have great impact on this area

130

Alternative Texts - 2 

Texts that can be read by assistive technology



Paper text – requires conversion



Electronic texts – may be accessible

131

What is an Accessible Alternative Text? 

Braille



Large print



Electronic files > text files – audio files

132

Focus On: Accessible PDF Files

133

Rationale 

PDF is the most common document file on Moodle or Blackboard



May be structured for accessibility



This helps students with low vision, blindness and reading learning disabilities 134

Tools



MS Word



Acrobat Pro

135

Types of PDF Files



Picture only



Searchable text



Tagged

136

Ways to Create PDF Files 

Scan a document into PDF the least accessible product



Convert from a “picture” file similar to a scanned document



Create from word processing file more accessible 137

Examples of Poor PDF files



Very poor initial copy



Poor copy and a marked original

138

Poor Scanning Example – One

139

Poor Scanning Example – Two

140

Identifying a Picture Only PDF

141

Identifying an Editable PDF

142

The Select Button

143

Converting image-only to text 

Convert within Acrobat pro

144

Reading converted text 

Recheck with select and try to read it

145

Creating an Accessible PDF with MS Word

Using correct document structure in Word makes for a very accessible PDF. 

It essentially takes no more time than ignoring document structure. 

146

Sample Syllabus

147

Sample Syllabus   

Columns Headers Table

148

Sample Syllabus – page two   

Table Headers Image

149

Exercises 2. Creating PDF from MS word Software   

MS Office 2000 (or later) on Windows platform Adobe Acrobat 5.x, 6.x, 7.x, or 8 Office 2007 requires Acrobat 8.1 (may also use Save as PDF plug-in from Microsoft)

150

Creating PDF from MS word Sample Workflow  





Create your content in MS Word Use "Styles" to provide document structure and modify content presentation Use the Column tool in MS Word to display multicolumn layout Add appropriate descriptions for any images 151

Creating PDF from MS word headers Use “Headers” instead of just “Bold”

152

153

Creating PDF from MS word – columns Use “Columns” instead of just “tabs”

154

155

Note Ruler

156

Creating PDF from MS word - tables 

Use headers in tables



Expand abbreviations i.e. Tuesday instead of Tue

157

158

Exercises 2. Creating PDF from MS word images

Use alternative text descriptions

159

160

Creating PDF from MS word conversion

161

Check Reading Order – One

162

Check Reading Order – Two

163

Summary – Accessible PDF  

    

Start with clean well copied original matter Create text-based or editable text Create new documents in Word Use header styles rather than BOLD Create true columns Put in Table headers Use alt-text for images 164

Demonstration of Kurzweil 3000

165

UNIVERSAL DESIGN & BLACKBOARD

Robert Voelker-Morris Teaching Effectiveness Program (TEP) Teaching and Learning Center 68 PLC (The Teaching and Learning Center) 541-346-1934

[email protected] 166

Blackboard      

Create File Name Conventions Provide File Extensions Construct Navigational Consistency Designate Essential Content Provide Support Resources Consider Multiple Media Types

167

I. Planning for Instruction Designing Your Course:

• •

Working in groups, create a list of important issues to consider when designing your course. These issues should be relevant to students with disabilities but might also be important for all learners. Try to incorporate issues into your own course planning (examples, list of assignments, choices, timing of reading, strategies for instruction, calendar of topics, due dates, homework, assessment, grading options, etc.)

168

II. Delivering Instruction Instructional Techniques •



Multi-sensory or multi-format instructional approaches (Visual, verbal, auditory, practice/hands on) • Auditory output redundant with info on visual displays • Visual output redundant with auditory displays • Opportunities for group work to verbalize and apply understanding Challenge!! • Balancing the need to cover a lot of content while delivering it in a variety of instructional formats! 169

Delivering Instruction Instructional Techniques continued 

Grouping Strategies (Peer-tutoring, Cooperative learning).

• The importance of clearly defined roles • Individual & Group Accountability • Can be implemented for projects or classroom activities

170

Delivering Instruction 



Individually, think of a commonly taught lesson/ activity in your area. Write down the topic and the typical approach you use to deliver instruction. Working in pairs, discuss each approach and generate a list of strategies that might enhance the instruction for students with disabilities AND all students--REPORT 171

III. Evaluating Students/ Assessment

  

Providing options and choice Rubrics Curriculum-based Assessment

172

Providing Options & Choice   



Different assessments for different content throughout the course. Choice of assessment using alternatives for each content area (multiple choice, or essay). Providing flexibility in time to complete assessments (design a one-hour assessment but allow two hours for completion). Issue: Do you lose anything when you offer these alternatives? 173

Rubrics 

Example



Why? • Specify performance expectations • Provide examples of expectations

174

Rubrics Excellent. Is organized into sections, separated by dividers, and contains four sections (Developing Relationships with Families, Classroom Management, Social & Emotional Learning, Academics). Each section meets all criteria provided in the requirements. Each strategy is completed by the due date. Course activities and readings are integrated into each entry. Each strategy is organized, easy to follow, and at least 3 to 5 pages long. Strategies are easily accessible, clear, easy to understand, and follow a personal theme. Average. Is organized into sections, separated by dividers, and contains four sections (Classroom Management, Social & Emotional Learning, Developing Relationships with Families, Academics). Each outline is completed by the due date. Most outlines meet all criteria outlined in the requirements section but some do not. Some outlines are not completed by the due date. Course readings are integrated into most but not all entries. Most entries are organized, easy to follow, and at least 3 to 5 pages long but some do not meet these criteria. Most strategies are easily accessible, clear, easy to understand, and follow a personal theme but some do not meet these criteria. Below Average. Is organized into sections, separated by dividers, and contains four sections (Classroom Management, Social & Emotional Learning, Developing Relationships with Families, Academics). Some (one or more) outlines are not completed by the assigned reading date. Most (3 or 4) entries do not meet all criteria outlined in the requirements section. Most outlines are not completed by the due date. Course readings are not integrated into most of the entries. Most entries are not organized, easy to follow, and at least 3 to 5 pages long. Most strategies are not easily accessible, clear, easy to understand, and do not follow a personal theme. Unacceptable. Is not organized into sections, and/or separated by dividers, and/or contains less than four strategies. Some entries are not typed and/or spell checked.  NOTE: Some = one or more, Most = more than half.

175

Benefits of Rubrics  

Specify performance expectations Predictability

176

Curriculum-based Assessment 



Instructional Assumptions of Traditional Assessment • All learners begin in same place • All learners gain equal access to information presented • Comparison to a criterion, or peers, is what matters Curriculum-Based Assessment • What is it? • Benefits • Example 177

100 90

Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

Test 4

178

Assessment Activity Working in pairs, discuss  What types of assessments you use?  Select one assessment you use.

• Based on our discussion, could your •

assessment be modified in some way to be more supportive of all students, including students with disabilities? Would this modification compromise the integrity of the assessment in any way? 179

Day 4: Agenda Review of Faculty & Student Survey  Exploring resources and training materials  Developing personal training and outreach goals 

180

Advocacy 

Our model is designed to enhance the university culture by

• Providing specific training to approximately 120 faculty and over three years.

• Asking these “trainees” (YOU) to go out and provide information to other faculty and staff in their own departments.

• Through other print and web-based resources 181

Allison Lombardi

Student & Faculty Surveys Overview of survey findings Faculty & Student

182

Accommodations

Relevant Subscales: Faculty: 1.Willingness to provide and perceived fairness of accommodations 2.Knowledge of Disability Law Student: 1.Student reported use of accommodations 2.Student feelings of stigmatization around requesting and use of accommodations from faculty Scale: Ranges from 1 = Strongly disagree to 6 = Strongly agree

6.00

5.09 5.00

4.00 Faculty Willingness

3.62

Faculty Knowledge of Disability Law

3.31

Student use of Student stigma

3.00

1.89

2.00

1.00

Accommodations

183

Campus Resources

Relevant Subscales: Faculty: 1.Perception of and satisfaction with Disability Services

Student: 1.Perception of and satisfaction with Disability Services 2.Perception of campus climate Scale: Ranges from 1 = Strongly disagree to 6 = Strongly agree

6.00

5.00 4.59 4.24

4.18

4.00 Faculty perception of Disability Services Students perception of Disability Services Students perception of campus climate

3.00

2.00

1.00 Campus Resources

184

Inclusive Instruction

Relevant Subscales: Faculty: 1.Willingness to make adjustments to course assignments and requirements 2.Perceived accessibility of course materials Student: 1.Perception of faculty teaching practices

6.00

5.00

4.81

3.86 4.00

3.54

Faculty Course/Assignment Adjustments Faculty Accessibility of Course Materials Student Perceptions of Teaching Practices

3.00

Scale: Ranges from 1 = Strongly disagree to 6 = Strongly agree

2.00

1.00 Inclusive Instruction

185

Minimizing Barriers

Relevant Subscales: Faculty: 1.Willingness to minimize instructional barriers

6.00

5.00

Student: 1.Perceptions of faculty attempts to minimize instructional barriers

4.30 3.99

4.00

Faculty Student

Scale: Ranges from 1 = Strongly disagree to 6 = Strongly agree

3.00

2.00

1.00 Minimizing Barriers

186

Other Student Factors

Relevant Subscales: 6.00

Student: 1. Self efficacy and Advocacy 2. Family Support 3. Peer Support

5.00

4.34

4.44

4.00

Scale: Ranges from 1 = Strongly disagree to 6 = Strongly agree

3.73 Self efficacy and Advocacy

Family Support Peer Support 3.00

2.00

1.00 Student Factors

187

Website  



http://ds.uoregon.edu/ Website Overview of Current site

188

Binders & Blackboard Sites 



All training materials are included in your binders We are also including electronic copies of these materials on your blackboard site and flashdrive

189

Strategies for Providing Information Continued…… 



Working in small groups plan and outline a training module for other members of your department. Each group do different time frame (15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour). • What type of information should you provide? • What are good venues to provide the information? • What materials would assist you in delivering the information? • REPORT OUT 190

Strategies for Providing Information Continued…… 

 

Now think about new faculty who are added each year (and adjunct during the year). Generate some ideas about strategies that could be used to provide new members with information. Create a list of strategies--REPORT OUT Next, develop a page of guidelines to give to new members of your dept. to help them work with students with disabilities--REPORT OUT 191

Reflection Activity 





List the top three challenges you personally feel you will face in providing information to other members of your department. Rank order these challenges 1, 2, 3 with one being the most challenging. How will you address the challenges?

192

Institutional Change  



Continue in groups Based on everything we’ve talked about develop a list of important issues that should be considered by the university as a whole. REPORT OUT 193

Institutional Cont.  

Continue working in groups. What strategies/activities could be implemented to affect broad institutional change?





REPORT OUT

Each group choose and discuss ONE issue and develop a strategy for initiating the process.



REPORT OUT 194

Past Participant Update 

Bill Ryan, School of Journalism



Incorporated disability awareness and related projects into Winter term course

195

Developing Goals 





What we want to think about now is one or two goals that you want to accomplish in the upcoming year. Structure for taking this week back home and putting into practice. Linking good intention with effective action

196

Goal Setting Activity Goals could potentially fit a number of categories—think of at least one unit goal.  Personal Development Goals  Unit Development Goals - Interpersonal  Unit Development Goals - Material  Institutional/Culture Change Goals

197

SMART Goal Setting     

Specific-clear focus, open-ended OK Meritorious-valuable, worth doing well Achievable-imagine accomplishment Realistic-tailored to your situation Terrific-others applaud, especially students with disabilities

198

Examples of SMART Goals 

 

To present selected materials from EXCEL workshop to faculty in the Psychology Department To improve the retention of students with disabilities majoring in Art History To strengthen the working relationships between Disability Services and three faculty in the History Department 199

Objectives 

Getting more specific than goals. What are the main steps to take to achieve a goal?



Goal: To present selected materials from EXCEL workshop to faculty in the Psychology Department -Ob1: Ask dept. chair for 15 minutes of time during next depart. meeting. -Ob2: Develop 15 minute presentation on most relevant accommodation issues. -Ob3: Deliver presentation to faculty and staff

200

Actions 

Possible Issues • Type of training you would like to initiate (within unit and/or institutional) • Content included • How and where implemented • By when will it be implemented • Results you would like to see • Resources/Supports you will need 201

THE END!!!!!    

Next steps? Final workshop evaluation Stipend Request Form Certificates of Appreciation

THANK YOU FOR PARTICIPATING!!! 202

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