The Civil Law Systems. Characteristics and Institutions

January 20, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Health Science, Immunology
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The Civil Law Systems. Characteristics and Institutions Maria Cecilia García Novillo Clara Latorre Molina Marta Martínez Albaladejo Matías Valiente Egea

Introduction • • • • • • • •

Civil Law: basic features Roman Empire and Medieval Time Codification Process Public Law Court Structure Legal Process Legal Actors Comparison

Civil Law: Basic Features • What? Dominant legal tradition today • Where? Most of Europe, Central & South Africa, parts of

Asia and Africa, Louisiana, Quebec and Puerto Rico

• Features - Inquisitorial (vs. accusatorial) - Code-based (vs. case law) - History: Roman Law - Branches: public / private – criminal / civil - Career judges - Written proceedings (vs. oral proceedings)

The Roman Law • History origins • Jurists  legal experts and advicers / “imperial advicers” – Public service – Gaius: Institutes  161 B.C

• Corpus Juris Civilis “non exemplis sed legibus

judicandum est” (6th Century) – Refinement of Gaiu’s Institutes + the Digest + the Code + the Novels

Medieval Developments • Changes in commerce • The Glossators of Bologna  features • Evolution: jurists as teachers

• The “gloss” technique: changes made in the Corpus Juris • • • •

Civilis Accursious: the “Great Gloss” (1230) Law at universities: Bologna Salamanca < --- > Palencia Influence in the Spanish Law  Code of the 7 parts of law

 ROMAN TIME (JURISTS)

 MEDIEVAL TIME (GLOSATORS)  UNIVERSITIES + DISSEMINATION

• Canon Law

- Influence of the church - Organization - Scholarly writings • Law Merchant

- Commercial relations  fairs and markets… - Maritime activities * Consolato Del Mare: Barcelona (14th Century)

Influences leading to a Codification Process  Practice of written laws spreads during the fourteenth

and fifteenth centuries.  Humanism

- origins in France. - ferment of ideas. - birth of the concept of the nation state and strong central governments.

 Natural law

- Hugo de Groot * writings about universal concept of law that would transcend national boundaries and be independent from other systems of law.

- Samuel Pufendorf and Christopher Wolff * writings influenced by scientific methods of Galileo and Descartes. Logical deduction  experience and observation.

 Enlightenment

- French Revolution. - Importance of reason as a liberating force in intellectual life. - Influence of legal philosophy. - Egalitarian ideals.

The Codification Process in France and Germany  the French Code

- Napoleon named four practitioners who had studied their predecessor. - Code Civil des Français. * 6 articles which announce general principles of law. * Book I: civil rights, status of persons, marriage, divorce and paternity.

- Book II: covers real and personal property. - Book III: contain provisions on rights of succession, contracts, and obligations. - influences * basic structure  Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis. * overall design  Declaration of the Rigths of Man.

 The German Code

- product of codification process in 3 states: Bavaria, Prussia and Austria. - presence of commissions made up of legal scholars. - Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch created in 1896 and put into effect in 1900. * Book I - General parts: . natural and juristic persons. . definition of things. . classification of legal acts. . prescriptive periods.

* Book II - The law of obligations . creation and discharge of obligations. . contracts. . law of delict. * Book III - The law of real and personal property. . ownership. . possession of property. . servitudes on property. . securities.

* Book IV - Family law . marriage. .other relationships within the family.

The Codes of Chile and Brazil  Constitutional theory and practise and structure of

government: Northern American influence. - American Revolution: Southern constitutions and public law.  Private law: European legacy.

 Chile

- Andres Bello: jurist specialist in both Roman and Spanish law. * member of a commission whose goal was to design a new civil code which went into force in 1857. - This code is still being seen as one of the most advanced through most of the Spanishspeaking countries in South America.

 Brazil

- Legalism and formalism. - Obsession for legal codes (water, air, mining, health, etc). - Similar to the German BGB: * general principles. * the law of persons, things and rights. * the law of family, property, obligations and succession. - “The greatest monument to legal thought and codification in Latin America”.

The Civil Law System as it exists and functions in the Modern Era  Public Law – Private Law Dichotomy.

-Private law  relationships between individuals -Public law  relationships between individuals (citizens, companies) and the state - Public law is not part of the civil codes. More fluid. Private law-matter ordinary courts - Legal practice Public law-mater administrative courts

Court Structure  Differences Common Law – Civil Law

- Civil-law countries  several separate court system coexist. Courts immune from jurisdiction of other courts.

Common-law judicial system

Civil-law judicial system

 Ordinary Courts

- adjudicates the majority of civil and criminal cases. - apply law found in the civil, commercial and penal codes.  Administrative courts - specialized courts or sections to deal with administrative cases. - independent jurisdiction from ‘ordinary courts’: rules specifically designed for administrative cases Problems when deciding the proper court for a case

Legal Process Civil procedure - Public proceedings, controlled by the parties judge conducted in writing judge - Civil process lawyers ‘article of proof‘ opposing counsel witness questioned at a later hearing judge supervises evidences prepares a summary delivers no ‘dramatic trials’ - Differences from Common Law trials absence of civil jury Judges: fact-finding process

Criminal procedure - Three phases: 1. Investigative 2.Examining 3. Trial

collect evidences warrant formal charges complete and review proceed to trial

Appellate procedure - Intermediate appellate review - Supreme court only law Court of Cassation

facts law

Affirm lower court decision Remand the case for consideration

Legal Actors  Legal Scholars → “basic thinking”  The Legislature → supplement and update codes  Judges → “operators” with a simple and narrow role  Legal Education and Lawyers

- Undergraduate education in law. - Choice among several branches. * Private practice (advocate, notary). * Government lawyers (public prosecutor, lawyer for government). * Judges.

Comparison of Civil-Law and Common-Law Systems (I)  Corpus Juris Civilis influence - Civil-Law → significant - Common-Law → modest

 Codification Process - Civil-Law → comprehensive codes from single drafting event. - Common-Law → codes reflecting rules of enunciated judicial decisions.

Comparison of Civil-Law and Common-Law Systems (II)  Equity law (no comparable law)

- Civil-Law → originated in Rome to be applied to non-Roman peoples - Common-Law → originated in England to soften the rigor of Common-Law  Creation of law: role of judicial decisions

- Civil-Law → negligible - Common-Law → supreme prominence

Comparison of Civil-Law and CommonLaw Systems (III)  Manner of legal reasoning

- Civil-Law → Deductive - Common-Law → Inductive  Structure of Courts - Civil-Law → Integrated Court system - Common-Law → Specialty Court system  Trial process - Civil-Law → Extended process - Common-Law → Single-event trial

Comparison of Civil-Law and Common-Law Systems (IV)  Judges

- Role in trials. * Civil-Law → elevated role * Common-Law → «referee» - Judicial attitudes. *Civil-Law → mere appliers of the law * Common-Law → search creatively for an answer - Selection and training. * Civil-Law → a part of the civil service * Common-Law → selected from a political process

Comparison of Civil-Law and CommonLaw Systems (V)  Legal training

- Civil-Law → undergraduate - Common-Law → post-graduate Civil process

Questions  1. Why were glossators called that way?  2.In what language was first published Consolato Del

Mare?  3. Which are the two schools of thoughts which influenced

the process of codification during in the Modern era?  4. Did the South American legal system have another

influence apart from the European one? If so, which one?

Questions  5. In the civil procedure, is the judge involved in the fact-

finding process?  6. How many phases are there in a criminal procedure?  7. Write two differences between the Common-law and the

civil-law systems.  8. What is the function of the Legislature?

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