The Era of Good Feelings

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, Revolution And Post-Independence (1775-1820), War Of 1812
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Essential Question: Which was the more powerful

force during the Era of Good Feelings: nationalism or sectionalism?

The Era of Good Feelings (1816-1825)

The Era of Good Feelings  After the War of 1812, America

experienced an “Era of Good Feelings” characterized by: – An extremely popular president – The emergence of a 2nd generation of U.S. leaders – Dominance by the Republicans – A surge in nationalism that united the country & improved U.S. industry & transportation

Monroe as President He appointed Democrats, Federalists, James Monroe was elected Southerners, Northerners to his cabinet; president in 1816 & John 1820Qwith a including Sec of State Adams

clear set of goals: – To promote national unity – To promote America’s power in the world Republican dominance of the presidency & Congress helped push through a series of new laws

The Great Triumvirate  By 1816, a wave of new leaders

shaped the antebellum era:  Henry Clay (Republican, KY) : – Represented the “West” – Speaker of the House – Proponent of national economic development (“American System" to promote industry & markets for farmers)

The Great Triumvirate  By 1816, a new wave of leaders

shaped the antebellum era:  John C. Calhoun (Republican, SC): – Represented the “South” – Sec of War; VP – He was the nation's leading proponent of states' rights (he embraced nullification)

The Great Triumvirate  By 1816, a new wave of leaders While theythe did antebellum not always agree, this shaped era: “Great Triumvirate” of Clay, Calhoun, &  Daniel Webster (Whig, MA): Webster enthusiastically supported national – Represented “North” economic the development – Congressman; Sec

of State – Strong proponent of nationalism & strong critic of states' rights

Who else are you the going to vote for? Politics After War of 1812 The Dem-Repubs traditionally

represented limited gov’t, states' rights, & strict construction But, without Federalist opposition, the Dem-Repubs adopted many traditionally Federalist policies: – National economic development – A permanent army – Transportation improvements – A national university in D.C.

All were proposed bylet Hamilton & of 1st significant Jefferson the charter Henry Clay’s American System opposed the 1790s protective tariffby Republicans the 1st BUS in expire in 1811 in U.S. history Henry Clay’s American System in

1816 proposed the creation of: – The 2nd Bank of the U.S. to stabilize U.S. currency Helped pave the way for future RR – Tariff of&1816 to promote U.S. construction western Indian removal industry & limit the importation of British manufactured goods – A nat’l system of roads & canals The “American System” helped unify North, South, & West

Judicial Nationalism John Marshall (1801-1835) used

the Supreme Court to strengthen the power of the national gov’t: – Exerted the power of the national gov’t over the states – Rejected the claim that states could check powers of the national gov’ t – Affirmed the loose construction argument of the elastic clause

Judicial Nationalism Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819):

gov’t cannot interfere with contracts between private parties McCullough v. Maryland (1819): Congress possesses powers not explicitly stated in Constitution; Congressional laws are supreme to decisions made by the states Gibbons v. Odgen (1824): interstate commerce is power reserved for national gov’t

President Monroe &Foreign Sec of State JQ Adams Nationalist Policy developed a nationalist foreign policy agenda

The Convention of 1818 set the US/Canada Treaty border (1817): set at theto49º Rush-Bagot avoid conflicts along the Great Lakes, the U.S. agreed not to take Canada & Britain not to invade the U.S

Nationalist Foreign Policy Monroe & JQ Adams turned their attention to acquiring Florida: Also, Spain assumed Florida eventually annexed – Andrewwould Jackson took be it upon himself to end Indian on U.S. agreed to pay Spainattacks $5 million & renounced claims toFlorida Texas Georgia from Spanish – Jackson’s military advances &

U.S. success in the War of 1812 helped force the Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) that ceded Florida & Oregon to U.S.

Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)

Nationalist Foreign Policy The U.S. will protect Latin When independence Latin American nations American revolted against Spain, the U.S. The U.S. will act independently & supported the its new republics: will protect sphere of influence – European powers disliked these

liberal rebellions & were tempted to re-conquer them – Monroe Doctrine (1823) warned European nations to stay out of the Western Hemisphere & the U.S. will not interfere in Europe

Sectionalism in the Era of Good Feelings

The end of the War settled in the West Settlement of theMany Trans-Mississippi of 1812 unleashed to escape a rush of pioneers overpopulation, rising into the western land prices, & worn-out territories soil in the East

The 2nd BUS made credit available for farmers to purchase land

Settlement theU.S. Trans-Mississippi By 1810, 1/7th of the population lived in rd lived in the West the West; By 1840 over 1/3 Congress quickly admitted 5 states to the Union: Indiana (1816) Illinois (1818) Alabama (1819) Mississippi (1817) Louisiana (1812)

Sectional Disputes The Era of Good Feelings started

with a wave of national unity, but sectional disputes between the North & South emerged & would dominate politics for next 40 years – Disagreed over the use of protective tariffs, especially when cotton prices fell in 1820s – Disagreed over slavery in the western territories & states

Population was growing more rapidly in Missouri Compromise North, so House of Reps favored Northerners In 1817, Missouri applied for

statehood as a slave state & NY rep Tallmadge wantedrivalries: Missouri revealed U.S. sectional only if its state constitution provided for – North resented Southern control the gradual elimination of slavery of presidency & its 3/5-inflated representation in House of Reps – South feared a Northern conspiracy to end all slavery – Equality had been maintained by alternating admission of “free” & “slave” states added to the US

American Slave Population, 1790-1820

Missouri Compromise (1820) Missouri Compromise (1820): – Missouri became a slave state – Maine (which broke from Mass)

was admitted as free state – Slavery was banned elsewhere in the Louisiana Purchase above the latitude of 36°30' The Missouri controversy exposed a deep rift between North & South

Missouri Compromise, 1820-1821

Conclusions The “Era of Good Feelings” led to:

– An improved American economy – Better transportation

– More territory & more clearly-

defined borders – A foreign policy in Latin America – But…sectional problems between the North & South

Discussion Questions Both Alexander Hamilton &

John Marshall were Federalists who believed in a strong national gov’t. Who was more influential in shaping American history? Explain Which policy will be more important in U.S. history: Monroe’s foreign OR domestic policy?

Essential Question: –How did U.S. foreign policy

change from the presidencies of Washington to Monroe? RQ Ch 10B (328-340)

American Foreign Policy Activity

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