The New Nation - Mishicot School District
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THE NEW NATION Out of Many :Chapter 8
TODAY’S KEY TOPIC: 10/8/12-10/9/12 The tensions and conflicts between local and national authorities in the decades after the American Revolution
TODAY’S LECTURE OUTLINE: 10/8/201210/9/12
The Crisis of the 1780’s Economic
Crisis State Remedies Movement toward a New National Government
CHART IT OUT: WHAT DO WE KNOW OF THE CONDITION OF NEW US AFTER THE REVOLUTION? With your pod, create a chart like below on your white boards. (Be sure to then add to notes) Problems and Reason for Crisis problems/crisis
Resolution path or Problems with solution to problem/crisis resolutions:
Need for $ during the war, printing of $; no common currency with dependable backing
Create new National Bank
Get states who paid off States each have own debts to acknowledge backing for funding. larger role
Currency: Who issues it? What backing will it have? Control of it? Power in the hands of the elite/wealthy?
Farmers vs Merchant elite.
I. THE CRISIS OF THE 1780S
The economic crisis had its origins in the Revolution – worst inflation in American history!
After the war ended, inflation gave way to depression Great Britain remained the country’s biggest trading partner Still trying to dig themselves out of the huge pile of debt from the Revolution The 13 states treated one another w/ suspicion & competed for economic advantage
British blockade Printing of continental & state money
Entered into boundary disputes which increase interstate rivalry & tension
Congress requisitioned the states for funding, who in return taxed their citizens
Turns from an economic problem to a political problem
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
FIGURE 8.1 Postwar Inflation, 1777–80: The Depreciation of Continental Currency The flood of Continental currency issued by Congress, and the shortage of goods resulting from the British blockade, combined to create the worst inflation Americans have ever experienced. Things of no value were said to be “not worth a Continental.” SOURCE: John McCusker, “How Much Is That in Real Money?” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society , N.S.102 (1992): 297–359.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
FIGURE 8.2 The Trade Deficit with Great Britain The American trade deficit with Great Britain rose dramatically with the conclusion of the Revolution. SOURCE: Historical Statistics of the United States (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office,1976),1176.
II. STATE REMEDIES
Legal Tender Laws Creditors
had to accept money at its face-value, not market-value Enacted by 7 states
states enacted high tariffs to protect domestic industries Merchants found a loop-hole: import into a state w/out tariffs & transport on the ground Only way this could be effective was if tariffs were nat’l
STATE REMEDIES (CON’T) States erected high tariffs to curb imports and protect infant industries but these were easily evaded by shippers. The most controversial economic remedies were designed to relieve debt burden. Farmers called for laws to require creditors to accept goods and commodities and had laws passed requiring them to accept nearly worthless state paper currency. One such incident: Shay’s Rebellion
SHAY’S REBELLION Conservatives concluded it was time “to clip the wings of a mad democracy.” Several hundred farmers from Pelham and scores of other rural communities of western Massachusetts converged in the courthouse in Northampton. This occurred at a time of great economic depression which hit farmers hardest. The state raised property taxes to pay off state debt-tax was which considerably more oppressive than those levied by British.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
A mocking pamphlet of 1787 pictured Daniel Shays and Job Shattuck, two leaders of Shays’ Rebellion. The artist gives them uniforms, a flag, and artillery, but the rebels were actually an unorganized group of farmers armed only with clubs and simple muskets. When the rebellion was crushed, Shattuck was wounded and jailed, and Shays, along with many others, left Massachusetts. He fled to a remote region of Vermont and then settled in New York. SOURCE: Anonymous, 18th century, “Daniel Shay (c. 1747-1825) and Job Shattuck (1725-1825?),” 1787, relief cut 9 x 12.9 cm (3-9/16 x 51/16”). Published in Bickerstaff’s Boston Almanack for 1787, third edition, Boston. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution/Art Resource, 11 NY.
Two thirds of those who marched had been sued for debt or spent time in debtor’s prison— the people were looking for state relief. The people rose up in defense of their property and state and federal governments were forced to reevaluate the distribution of power. In 1786, Shays’ Rebellion broke out in western Massachusetts when farmers closed down courts to prevent debt executions. A militia from eastern Massachusetts crushed the rebellion.
SHAY’S REBELLION: FARMERS VS MERCHANT ELITE As you watch, 1.What is the significance of this rebellion?
2.How does it foreshadow the problems to come with the newly US? 3.How does this rebellion illustrate how the Revolution was a complex event with multiple ideologies?
MOVEMENT TOWARD A NEW NATIONAL GOVERNMENT Annapolis Convention in the making: Meeting hosted by Washington at his home in Mt. Vernon where four states (VA, MD, DE, & PA) agreed that the 13 states needed to meet to discuss the economic problems 1786, VA legislature invited each state to send 3 delegates to discuss political remedies for the economic crisis Only 12 delegates from 5 states attended Passed a resolution requesting that the Confederation Congress call on all states to send delegates to revisit the Articles of Confederation Congress reluctantly agreed & endorsed a convention to be held in Philadelphia in May 1787
TODAY’S REVIEW: 10/8/2012-10/9/12
Discussion Question # 1: What
were the economic problems that resulted from the Revolution? What sorts of remedies did people purpose? What sorts of problems would these remedies create?
ASSIGNMENT: Read Chapter 8 pages 241-246 (Stop at First Administration) Read and be ready to discuss primary sources 81, 8-3, and 8-4. You will be assigned one upon entering the class tomorrow and will hold a discussion table Need to develop own notes on the readings, answer the questions, and be able to summarize the importance and relevance to the chapter. Learning Targets that apply to reading section
PRIMARY SOURCE READINGS
Pod 1: American School Teacher Calls….
Pod 2: A Frenchmen comments….
Pod 3: A Frenchmen comments…..
Pod 4: American School Teacher Calls…..
Pod 1 and 3
Pod 2 and 4 Pair and Share
How did these two articles reflect the changing of the time period after the Revolution?
What impact did a French Perspective and a common language have in the development of a United States of America?
What did you find most interesting between the articles?
Road to the Convention Primary
source readings Handout Be ready to discuss sources and contribute to a class discussion Will be graded Simple tally system of participation What can you contribute?
CHAPTER 8 LECTURE PART TWO 10/9/12
The New Constitution The
Constitutional Convention Ratifying the New Constitution The Bill of Rights
DRAFTING THE CONSTITUTION AT PHILADELPHIA
May 1787 55 delegates from 12 states
The radical gov’t of RI, distrusting of the other states, refused to send a delegation
White males, collegeeducated, relatively young (avg. 40 years), and typically wealthier than the avg. American All acquainted with politics & many were practicing lawyers who helped write their state’s constitution
Thomas Jefferson, John Jay, Thomas Paine & John Adams (ambassadors in Europe) Patrick Henry (“Smelt a rat”) Samuel Adams & John Hancock were not chosen as delegates Women, Native Americans, ordinary farmers
For the most part, they represented America’s social & economic elite
DRAFTING THE CONSTITUTION AT PHILADELPHIA
1st order of business:
Choose presiding officer Decide on public communication
Washington unanimously elected chairperson Would keep their meetings secret until they were complete
James Madison took voluminous notes which serve as our records of what transpired Madison would later become known as the “Father of the Constitution”
Virginian delegates drafted what becomes known as the Virginia Plan & presented to the convention shortly after it convened it set the agenda Proposed scrapping the Articles of Confederation altogether in favor of a “consolidated government” w/ the power to tax & enforce laws Would have reduced states to little more than administrative institutions – like today’s counties Bicameral legislation primarily based on state population size
NEW JERSEY PLAN
Main opposition to VA plan came from smaller states William Patterson introduced the New Jersey Plan Proposed increasing power of central gov’t Retain a unicameral legislation where states are equally represented
VIRGINIA & NEW JERSEY PLANS
THE GREAT COMPROMISE After much debate & a series of votes that split the convention down the middle, compromised was reached Representation proportional to population in the House & equal representation in the Senate Allowed creation of a nat’l gov’t while still providing an important role for each state
Americans still generally had a distrust of gov’t Delegates wanted to make sure that the new constitution would be based on a system of checks & balances Representation Decided by the Great Compromise Slavery How were slaves to be counted in the populations of the south? Were the slave trade & slavery itself to be allowed under the Constitution? Term “slave” was never used in the Constitution Three-fifths Compromise: counted each slave as 3/5 of a person for the purposes of determining a state’s level of taxation & representation A guarantee that slaves could be imported for at least another 20 years longer (until 1808), at which time Congress could vote to abolish the practice “great as the evil is, a dismemberment of the union would be worse”
North: wanted central gov’t to regulate South: afraid of taxes on tobacco & rice Commercial Compromise: allowed Congress to regulate interstate & foreign commerce (including tariffs), but prohibited placing taxes on any exports
Powers & Election of President
Disagreement on length of term & method of election President could veto the acts of Congress Limited term to 4 years, but set no limit on the # of terms Established the electoral college system Each state had the same # of electors as it did congress members Instituted because the delegates feared too much democracy might lead to mob rule Feared that ordinary voters could never “be sufficiently informed” to select wisely
RATIFICATION Delegates voted their approval on September 17, 1787 Transmitted document to Congress & agreed that only 9 states had to approve it to become fully ratified Congress outraged that the convention exceeded its charge in simply modifying the Articles of Confederation In the end, called for special ratifying convention in each of the states
FEDERALISTS & ANTI-FEDERALISTS Federalists = those who supported the Constitution & a strong federal gov’t Anti-Federalists = opponents to the Constitution Both sides could be found in all regions & classes
– most numerous on the Atlantic Coast & large cities Anti – tended to be small farmers & settlers on the western frontier
Emphasized the weaknesses of the Articles showed their opponents as merely negative opponents with no solutions
Stronger central gov’t was needed to maintain order and preserve the Union
George Washington, Ben Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton
Strong leaders; well organized
Constitution was new & untried as originally written, it lacked a bill of rights
Argued that the proposed Constitution contained no protection of individual rights Argued it gave the central gov’t more power than the British ever had
Stronger central gov’t would destroy the work of the Revolution, limit democracy, & restrict states’ rights
George Mason & Patrick Henry (VA) James Winthrop & John Hancock (MA) George Clinton (NY)
Appealed to popular distrust of gov’t based on colonial experience
Poorly organized Slow to respond to Federalist challenges
THE FEDERALIST PAPERS
Key element in the Federalist campaign for the Constitution Series of 85 highly persuasive essays written for a NY newspaper by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, & John Jay Later, the essays were published in book form Presented reasons for believing in the practicality of each major provision of the Constitution
OUTCOME DE, NJ, & PA were the first 3 to ratify Promised to add a Bill of Rights GA, CT, MD, MA, SC, & NH gave the nine states needed for total ratification But, with the larger states of VA & NY yet to ratify, any chance for nat’l unity & strength would be in jeopardy VA only ratify with the promise of a Bill of Rights News of VA had enough influence on NY to ratify NC ratified in November 1789, and RI reversed their rejection
ADDING THE BILL OF RIGHTS
2. 3. 4.
Drafted largely by James Madison, Congress passed 12 and sent them to the states for ratification; only 10 survived. Freedom of religion, 6. Right to speedy & public trial; speech, press, assembly, call witnesses & petition; separation of 7. Right to trial by jury church & state 8. Protected against excessive Keep & bear arms bail & cruel & unusual No quartering of soldiers punishment Protection against 9. All rights not mentioned are unreasonable search & also guaranteed against gov’t seizures infringement No deprivation of life, liberty, or property w/out 10. All powers not delegated to due process federal, belongs to states
SMART START: REVIEW
AP Prep Test
Go over responses
I. WASHINGTON HEADS THE NEW GOVERNMENT
Took the oath of office, April 30, 1789 in NYC
A. The New Govt. Takes Shape
John Adams: VP Set precedents for others to follow How to address the President?
1. Judiciary Act of 1789
Created the federal court system ○ ○
The Constitution provided few details on this branch Est. number of justices, 13 district courts, and how state decisions can be appealed to federal courts
John Jay the 1st chief justice of the Supreme Court
A. NEW GOVT. TAKES SHAPE CONT.
2. Washington Shapes the Executive Branch
Only three depts., attorney general, and postmaster general
Thomas Jefferson: Sec. of State Alexander Hamilton: Sec. of Treasury Henry Knox: Sec. of War Edmund Randolph: Attorney General
B. HAMILTON AND JEFFERSON DEBATE
1. Hamilton and Jefferson Conflict
Polar opposites politically
2. Hamilton’s Economic Plan
New govt. pay off debts owed by the old govt.
Foreign debts, states, and individuals
Give states interest in helping the new govt.
3. Plan for a National Bank
Wanted to create a Bank of the United States
B. HAMILTON AND JEFFERSON DEBATE CONT.
4. The District of Columbia
Congress didn’t want to pay the people
Many sold their bonds already, below the value
The South didn’t want to pay for more than their share
The South would help if the new capital was in their territory On the Potomac between MD and VA
Bank Issue: only three banks in the U.S. Madison and Jefferson said it was unconstitutional Washington sided with Hamilton
C. THE FIRST POLITICAL PARTIES AND REBELLION
1. Federalists and DemocraticRepublicans Hamilton vs. Jefferson, both resigned the cabinet by 1793 2. The Whiskey Rebellion
Taxes led to this in western Penn.
Backcountry farmers who bartered Peaceful until July 1794 Mob attacked tax collectors
Washington led the army to crush the rebellion Joined by Alexander Hamilton The govt. will act Change the govt. peacefully ○
THE 1ST POLITICAL PARITIES
Hamilton and Adams Support Washington Strong Fed. Govt. Britain Manufacturing Rule of the wealthy class Loose interpretation of the Constitution National Bank Tariffs Northeast and wealthy South
Democratic-Republicans or Republicans
Jefferson, Madison Attacked Washington Strong state govts. France Agriculture Strict interpretation of the Constitution State Banks Free Trade Small famers and urban workers of Middle America
II. FOREIGN AFFAIRS TROUBLE THE NATION
A. U.S. Response to Events in Europe
Most Americans initially supported the French Revolution
1. Reactions to the French Revolution
1789, French Revolution ○ Does America help? ○ Too bloody, 1793 1793, England and France at war ○ South: liked France Jefferson ○ North: England Hamilton, Adams
Washington: Proclamation of Neutrality
Reaction to Edmond Genet trying to recruit Americans 2. Treaty with Spain
Pinckney’s Treaty Allowed to use the Mississippi and N. Orleans
B. NATIVES RESIST WHITE SETTLERS
Trouble with the Natives
England and Spain egged them on Treaties for land, ignored
1. Fights in the Northwest
Washington sent the army to restore order, 1791
Lost 600 men to Chief Little Turtle (Miami tribe)
2. Battle of Fallen Timbers
Natives wanted all white gone north of the Ohio GW sent Anthony Wayne and the army 1794, Wayne crushed 800 natives Ended hopes of Natives ○
Treaty of Greenville: they gave up Ohio
3. Jay’s Treaty
British leave U.S. lands Allow some trade U.S. pays back debts before 1776
He would not serve a 3rd term “Farewell Address”
Stay out of Europe’s business Followed for almost 100 years Avoid political parties America ignored this
Retired to Mount Vernon, VA Died: 1799