The Ugly Fate of Rohingyas: from Kingdom to Stateless
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Rohingya Dilemma: a ruthless vicious circle in so-called civilized world
Abdul Hamid M.V. Musa Ali Arakan, Burma
Anak-Anak Pengungsi Rohingya di Shelter Pathum Thani Bangkok Oktober 2009
to Burman occupation of Arakan in 1784,
by Hindus, Buddhists and Muslim
Sultanate beginning in 1430 lasted for more than 350 years
it was invaded and occupied by Burman king Bodaw Paya in 1784.
The map of ancient Arakan A map showing cultural divisions of South-East Asia in 15th century A.D. as shown in the Time Atlas of World Histoiy indicating Arakan as an Islamic Stale by Geoferry Banadough P133
the year 1824, British occupied Arakan put under India
1937, separated form British India
became a province of independent Burma in 1948.
Map of present Arakan
Persecution minorities Since
after the 1962’s coup by general Nay Win
confiscated the properties of Indian and nationalized, later target Chinese
Finally aimed at Rohingyas
in the present regime the situation atrocities reach at its peak
The problems of the Rohingyas are
the result of the forcible expulsion from their homeland
means of persecution, genocidal massacres, torture and harassment in the most inhuman manner.
is a problem of religious and political persecution
systematic elimination of an ethnic Muslim community from their own homeland of Arakan
Operation against Rohingyas Military Burma
Operation (5th Burma Regiment) November 1948
Territorial Force (BTF) Operation 1949-50
Operation (2nd Emergency Chin regiment) March
Operation October 1952-53
Operation October 1954
Immigration and Army Operation January 1955
Military Police (UMP) Operation 1955-58
Captain Shwe Kyi
Htin Kyaw Operation 1959
Kyi Operation October 1966
Gan Operation October-December 1966
Mon Operation February 1969-71
Than Operation 1973
Operation February 1974-78
Hintha Operation August 1978-80
Operation February 1978-79
Thaya Operation 1991-92
Operation (border security forces) (presently going on) 1992.....
Headquarters is at the border town of Maungdaw to implement the following objectives:-
Socio-economic deprivation of the Rohingyas;
Effective control on the growth of Rohingya population;
De-muslimization of Arakan through ethnic cleansing;
Spread of Buddhism and Burma Buddhist culture in Arakan with prejudice on Islam and Rohingya culture.
judicial killing: Since 1989 thousands of Rohingya youths and madrasah students were killed.
arrest and extortion: is a daily routine of business of Na-Sa-Ka and police. It is popularly known as Kalar Hmu
of properties: Land, and cattle confiscated and distribute it among Burman model villagers.
there are 100 model villages. Each village has 70-100 household and
house was provided with 4 acres of land and 2 pairs of cows.
and anti-Muslim propaganda: The junta incites communal riots by allowing to distribute books and taped records insulting Islam and Muslims.
Rape: Rape of women is widespread. It was an official strategy to terrorize and compel the Rohingya community to flee.
Forced labor: Although forced labor is prevalent throughout Burma, in North Arakan, it is only imposed on the Rohingyas.
on movements: Rohingyas are not allowed to travel freely from one place to another, even within the same locality.
on marriage: take years to obtain permission, requires payment of bribes. Some brides are forced to undergo a pregnancy test. Unauthorized marriages are criminalized and are sentenced with 4 to 7 years.
on employment: As non-citizens, we are barred from all kind of employment and therefore people are jobless.
on education: Illiteracy is at 80%. Primary and secondary education is neglected. Due to restrictions of movement, we are prevented from attending higher education.
Resttriction on religious practices
Many mosques have been destroyed and closed down.
No permission is given even to renovate Masjids and madrasahs while building new one is totally forbidden.
It means within more and less than twenty years there will not be seen any Islamic symbolical housings
Most of them are build of woods and bamboos.
to it there is no hill-top left that there is no pagoda on it.
new Buddhist settlement
demography of Arakan change into Buddhism appearance
Discrimination out of Burma A. Bangladesh
Refugees are treated as sub-human being
Donations are not reach to
Destroyed their huts
Rape refugee woman
No education for children
Unregistered camps, Kutupalong,
One view of refugee camp before destroyed
Another view side of refugee camp before destroyed
At raining season, the view of refugee camp
These huts were destroyed On
Police Ansar Forest
View of camp area after destroyed
Destroyed area from south-west side
Destroyed area from south-west side
Women build their hut as no man in the family
Dangerous journey Due
to endless persecution in Burma
attitudes of neighboring Bangladesh
many Rohingyas to seek refuge elsewhere.
the past, Rohingyas used Saudi Arabia, UAE but as Bangladesh not issue passport; almost impossible,
only option since 2006 became a risky boat trip to reach Malaysia via Thailand.
B. In Thailand
In December 2008 and January 2009, as more and more Rohingyas fled on boats and reached Thai waters,
Thailand changed policies and the Thai military, after torturing them on a deserted island,
Towed them back to high seas with little food and water on boats with no engines. 850 were rescued in India and Indonesia but hundreds perished in the ocean.
Survivors are now detained in Thailand, India and Indonesia and their fate remains uncertain.
Asian summit, Thailand Failed
address the problems
policies make Asian nation to shy away from the matter
they were branded illegal immigrant caught in Andaman sea
as Bangli and accept them if they can porbe Burmese Bangali
Bangali Why not Rohingya? Think!
C. How about Malaysia? Caught
education for children
not admit into the religious school
Our humble Appeal International
bodies UN, EU, OIC, ASEAN,
such as UK, USA, India, China, Australia and
explore a permanent solution to the outstanding Rohingya problems
the frame work of the international law, pacts on human rights and other international practices.
To pressurise the Burmese Junta: 1.
To recognise Rohingyas as an indigenous ethnic
To issue immediately national identity cards
To give permission to build Mosques and other---
To admit into higher education including-----
To stop extra- Judicial Killing, raping Rohingya women, any form of harassing
6. To stop arbitrary arrest, torture, arbitrary taxation
7. To lift ALL form of restrictions
8. To stop forced slave labour
9. To lift restrictions of Marriage
10. To stop forced Eviction and House Destruction
11. To give back forced confiscated land to their owner.
12. To call back all model villagers to their original places
Our appeal to host countries
give temporary protection
give chance for education
Our appeal to NGOs To
highlight Rohingya problems
form a working team among NGOs
find a way
To formulate a mechanism for permanent solution
Acknowledgement ● Universal Justice Network ● Citizen International, Penang, Malaysia ● Islamic Human Rights Council, UK ● Honorable chairman, Dr. Muhideen Abdul Kader, Vice president, Consumer’s Associaton Penang. ● Ustaz Cikgu Mohd Azmi Abdul Hamid, President TERAS, and also Training Coordinator ● All staff members, for their hardworking