The Ugly Fate of Rohingyas: from Kingdom to Stateless

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Sociology, Discrimination
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Rohingya Dilemma: a ruthless vicious circle in so-called civilized world

Abdul Hamid M.V. Musa Ali Arakan, Burma

Anak-Anak Pengungsi Rohingya di Shelter Pathum Thani Bangkok Oktober 2009

Introduction  Prior

to Burman occupation of Arakan in 1784,

 Ruled

by Hindus, Buddhists and Muslim

 Muslim

Sultanate beginning in 1430 lasted for more than 350 years

 Until

it was invaded and occupied by Burman king Bodaw Paya in 1784.

The map of ancient Arakan A map showing cultural divisions of South-East Asia in 15th century A.D. as shown in the Time Atlas of World Histoiy indicating Arakan as an Islamic Stale by Geoferry Banadough P133

 In

the year 1824, British occupied Arakan put under India

 In

1937, separated form British India

 Arakan

became a province of independent Burma in 1948.

Map of present Arakan

Persecution minorities  Since

after the 1962’s coup by general Nay Win

 He

confiscated the properties of Indian and nationalized, later target Chinese

Finally aimed at Rohingyas

 However,

in the present regime the situation atrocities reach at its peak

The problems of the Rohingyas  are

the result of the forcible expulsion from their homeland

 by

means of persecution, genocidal massacres, torture and harassment in the most inhuman manner.

 It


is a problem of religious and political persecution

systematic elimination of an ethnic Muslim community from their own homeland of Arakan

Operation against Rohingyas  Military  Burma

Operation (5th Burma Regiment) November 1948

Territorial Force (BTF) Operation 1949-50

 Military

Operation (2nd Emergency Chin regiment) March

1951-52  Mayu

Operation October 1952-53

 Mone-thone  Combined

Operation October 1954

Immigration and Army Operation January 1955

 Union

Military Police (UMP) Operation 1955-58

 Captain  Shwe  Kyi

Htin Kyaw Operation 1959

Kyi Operation October 1966

Gan Operation October-December 1966

 Ngazinka  Myat

Operation 1967-69

Mon Operation February 1969-71

 Major Aung

Than Operation 1973

 Sabe

Operation February 1974-78

 Nagamin

 Shwe

Hintha Operation August 1978-80

 Galone

 Pyi

Operation February 1978-79

Operation 1979

Thaya Operation 1991-92

 Na-Sa-Ka

Operation (border security forces) (presently going on) 1992.....

Na-Sa-Ka operation 

Headquarters is at the border town of Maungdaw to implement the following objectives:-

Socio-economic deprivation of the Rohingyas;

Effective control on the growth of Rohingya population;

De-muslimization of Arakan through ethnic cleansing;

Spread of Buddhism and Burma Buddhist culture in Arakan with prejudice on Islam and Rohingya culture.

Mechanisms  Extra

judicial killing: Since 1989 thousands of Rohingya youths and madrasah students were killed.

 Arbitrary

arrest and extortion: is a daily routine of business of Na-Sa-Ka and police. It is popularly known as Kalar Hmu

 Confiscation

of properties: Land, and cattle confiscated and distribute it among Burman model villagers.

 Now,

there are 100 model villages. Each village has 70-100 household and

 Each

house was provided with 4 acres of land and 2 pairs of cows.

 Anti-Rohingya

and anti-Muslim propaganda: The junta incites communal riots by allowing to distribute books and taped records insulting Islam and Muslims.

Rape: Rape of women is widespread. It was an official strategy to terrorize and compel the Rohingya community to flee.

Forced labor: Although forced labor is prevalent throughout Burma, in North Arakan, it is only imposed on the Rohingyas.

 Restriction

on movements: Rohingyas are not allowed to travel freely from one place to another, even within the same locality.

 Restriction

on marriage: take years to obtain permission, requires payment of bribes. Some brides are forced to undergo a pregnancy test. Unauthorized marriages are criminalized and are sentenced with 4 to 7 years.

 Restriction

on employment: As non-citizens, we are barred from all kind of employment and therefore people are jobless.

 Restriction

on education: Illiteracy is at 80%. Primary and secondary education is neglected. Due to restrictions of movement, we are prevented from attending higher education.

Resttriction on religious practices

Many mosques have been destroyed and closed down.

No permission is given even to renovate Masjids and madrasahs while building new one is totally forbidden.

It means within more and less than twenty years there will not be seen any Islamic symbolical housings

Most of them are build of woods and bamboos.

 Contrary

to it there is no hill-top left that there is no pagoda on it.

 100  The

new Buddhist settlement

demography of Arakan change into Buddhism appearance

Discrimination out of Burma A. Bangladesh 

Refugees are treated as sub-human being

Donations are not reach to

Destroyed their huts

Rape refugee woman

No education for children

No water

Unregistered camps, Kutupalong,

One view of refugee camp before destroyed

Another view side of refugee camp before destroyed

At raining season, the view of refugee camp

These huts were destroyed  On


 Join

oppression by

 Police  Ansar  Forest


View of camp area after destroyed

Destroyed area from south-west side

Destroyed area from south-west side

Women build their hut as no man in the family

Dangerous journey  Due

to endless persecution in Burma

 Unwelcoming

attitudes of neighboring Bangladesh

 Prompted

many Rohingyas to seek refuge elsewhere.

 In

the past, Rohingyas used Saudi Arabia, UAE but as Bangladesh not issue passport; almost impossible,

 The

only option since 2006 became a risky boat trip to reach Malaysia via Thailand.

B. In Thailand 

In December 2008 and January 2009, as more and more Rohingyas fled on boats and reached Thai waters,

Thailand changed policies and the Thai military, after torturing them on a deserted island,

Towed them back to high seas with little food and water on boats with no engines. 850 were rescued in India and Indonesia but hundreds perished in the ocean.

Survivors are now detained in Thailand, India and Indonesia and their fate remains uncertain.

Asian summit, Thailand  Failed

address the problems

 Non-interference

policies make Asian nation to shy away from the matter

 Surprisingly,

they were branded illegal immigrant caught in Andaman sea

 Level

as Bangli and accept them if they can porbe Burmese Bangali

 Why

Bangali Why not Rohingya? Think!

C. How about Malaysia?  Caught

and deported

 Employment  No

education for children

 Even

 No


not admit into the religious school

medical facilities

Our humble Appeal  International


bodies UN, EU, OIC, ASEAN,

 Countries

such as UK, USA, India, China, Australia and

 To

explore a permanent solution to the outstanding Rohingya problems

 Within

the frame work of the international law, pacts on human rights and other international practices.

To pressurise the Burmese Junta:  1.

To recognise Rohingyas as an indigenous ethnic

 2.

To issue immediately national identity cards

 3.

To give permission to build Mosques and other---

 4.

To admit into higher education including-----

 5.

To stop extra- Judicial Killing, raping Rohingya women, any form of harassing

6. To stop arbitrary arrest, torture, arbitrary taxation

7. To lift ALL form of restrictions

8. To stop forced slave labour

9. To lift restrictions of Marriage

10. To stop forced Eviction and House Destruction

11. To give back forced confiscated land to their owner.

12. To call back all model villagers to their original places

Our appeal to host countries

 To

give temporary protection

 To

issue document

 To

give chance for education

 Permission  Assess

for employment

for treatment

Our appeal to NGOs  To

highlight Rohingya problems

 To

form a working team among NGOs

 Work  To 


find a way

To formulate a mechanism for permanent solution

 To

approach government

Acknowledgement ● Universal Justice Network ● Citizen International, Penang, Malaysia ● Islamic Human Rights Council, UK ● Honorable chairman, Dr. Muhideen Abdul Kader, Vice president, Consumer’s Associaton Penang. ● Ustaz Cikgu Mohd Azmi Abdul Hamid, President TERAS, and also Training Coordinator ● All staff members, for their hardworking

Thank you

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