Tojo, Hirohito and the rise of Japan

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Law, Constitutional Law
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Hirohito, Tojo, and the rise of Japan

Japan becomes an Imperial Power • 1853: Matthew Perry forces the Japanese to open trade or face war • 1868: Traditional government falls apart and the Meiji Era begins – Sends ½ of the government to learn from the Western world • See Manchester (England) and realize the importance of Industrialization

– ½ stays in Japan • Invade Korea

A new constitution is formed • Japanese officials that were in the West learned about constitutions – Took ideas from the Prussian Constitution • Why was this not successful?

• Meiji Constitution – Emperor at the top – Military answers only to the emperor (and in future will help rule) • In the 1920-30’s Great Depression and Government Corruption lead to the military appointing a “Prime Minister” to rule with Emperor

Emperor Hirohito (Showa) • 1926 he becomes the Emperor – Grandson of Meiji

• Appoints Tojo as Prime Minister

Tojo Hideki • Tojo believed in the Racial Superiority of the Japanese people, especially over the Chinese. • He was also ultra-nationalistic as well as very militaristic. • He wanted to expand the Japanese empire throughout the Pacific Rim.

Tojo’s Rise to Power Joined the Japanese army • His military service included periods in Switzerland and Germany •Became “major general” in 1933 • Became head of the Kwantung Army military police in 1935 • He was appointed minister of war in 1941 by Fumimaro Kondoye A strong supporter of Nazi Germany • He feared long term plans of Joseph Stalin Advocated pre-emptive air strikes on both China and the Soviet Union Executed for charges of being a war criminal in 1948

Post WWI Japan • Japan is facing economic depression and large population – People of Japan cannot go across the Pacific, instead sent to Manchuria

• Looking for markets to sell their industrialized goods – Europe and Africa are taken by Europeans • When Britain pulls out of China, Japan tries to take over

• Pan Asianism: “Asia is one”

Pan Asianism: “Asia is one” • Japan reminds Asians that Asia is larger and higher populated than Europe • Japan claims that they are the “true” Asians and unless culture has reached Asia, it must not be fully Asian – To be “fully Asian” (according to Japanese) you must be controlled by the Japanese • In other words: The Japanese believed they were helping the people they imperialized

• Unless culture made it all the way up to Japan, the Japanese did not believe it was really “Asian”

Military and Political ideologies • Invasion is necessary • “Korea is the dagger into the heart of Japan” – To protect Japan you must control Korea – To protect Korea you must control Manchuria – To protect Manchuria you must control China • If they resist you must force them!

Explain… • Explain the differences between Hirohito and the other 20th century leaders

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