Truman & Ike

January 7, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, The Cold War And Beyond (After 1945), Cold War
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Warm up • Identify: – – – – –

A. Levittowns B. Benjamin Spock C. Betty Friedan D. Baby Boom E. GI Bill

Discuss: a. Most historians describe the 50s as a time of tremendous conformity. What were some things that either contradicted this notion or demonstrated people’s dissatisfaction or frustration with it?

Truman & Ike US Politics After WWII

Truman’s Domestic Agenda • Truman suffered by coming after FDR. • Domestic policy was called the “Fair Deal.” • Wanted: To expand social security, increase minimum wage, national health care & Civil Rights. Push for Civil Rights alienated the Southern wing of the democratic party.

Election of 1948 • Truman is given no chance by the experts. – A. Popularity is low in all polls.

– B. Alienated Southern wing of Democrats. • They run Strom Thurmond (Dixiecrat).

– C. He is thought by some to be 2nd rate. “To error is Truman.” – D. Many liberals prefer Henry Wallace.

Republican Congress • Republicans take control of Congress in 1946. • Won’t go along with any of Truman’s Fair Deal. • They do pass the Taft-Hartley Act (1947).

Taft-Hartley Act • Aimed at weakening the Wagner Act. • Made illegal the “Closed Shop.” • Truman vetoed, but Congress overrode it the same day.

The Dixiecrats • Southern Democrats who don’t want to support Truman because he wants civil rights laws to help blacks. • They leave the Democratic party and form the Dixiecrat Party and run Strom Thurmond for President. • Most people feel that this will hurt Truman because he will loose votes in the South.

Thomas Dewey • Dewey—who lost to FDR in 1944—is the Republican candidate. • He is so sure of victory, that he doesn’t campaign very aggressively. Also, won’t go negative and use communism as an issue.”

• Truman is aggressive. “Give em Hell.”

Truman Wins • Truman’s victory in 1948 is considered the greatest political upset in US history.

Lesson for the Republicans • Begin to go all out in attacking the Dems. as being soft on Communism.

Review • Who did Truman run against in the 1948 election? • How did Truman alienate the southern wing of the Democratic party? • Who were the Dixiecrats? Who was their candidate?

Truman’s 2nd Term • Gets raise in minimum wage, expansion of social security, federal $ for low-income housing. • Can’t get national health care or $ for education. • Ends racial discrimination in govt. hiring & begins to desegregate the military.

• Recognizes the state of Israel • But war in Korea is unpopular & Republican attacks about communism work.

The Election of 1952 • Democrats choose Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson. • Intellectual • Conservative for a Democrat

Ike • Republicans choose former WWII general Dwight D. Eisenhower (Ike). Slogan = “I like Ike.” • VP for Ike is Richard Nixon.

Checkers Speech • During the campaign, Nixon is accused of getting illegal campaign funds. • He goes on TV to profess his honor. • During the speech, he admits that he received a dog for his daughters named “checkers” and that no matter what, he is keeping the dog. • This saves his political career.

Nixon’s Checkers’ Speech

Ike Wins • President for 2 terms (1952-1960). • Ike is a conservative domestically: Sought to balance the budget & reduce govt. • Appoints business leaders to his administration.

• But does little to dismantle New Deal programs. • Biggest domestic accomplishment is Federal Highway Act of 1956 (largest public works project in US history). • Not very committed to Civil Rights.

Things that happen when Ike is Pres. • “In God We Trust” • “One Nation, Under God” • Space Race begins—Sputnik (1957) • NASA & Explorer (1958)

Ike’s Foreign Policy • John Foster Dulles is sec. of State. • Most people think Ike is old and out of it. • “Hidden Hand.”

New Look • Ike’s foreign policy called the “New Look” • Had attacked Dems. for “containment.” Ike and Republicans claim they are for “Rollback.”

• Reality is not as aggressive as rhetoric (ex = Hungary 1956). • Ike and co. also for “Massive Retaliation” = nuclear buildup and scaling back of conventional forces. • “Brinksmanship.”

review • Who did Ike run against for the presidency in 1952 and again in 1956? • Who was Ike’s Secretary of State?

• In what specific way did the Ike people criticize the Truman administration in its approach to the menace of communism? In other words, what did they claim they would do differently if they were in charge? • What is “brinksmanship” and what are its pros and cons?

“Don’t be afraid—I can always pull you back”

SEATO • South East Asian Treaty Organization (1954) • Resembles NATO, but for Asia. • Ike also ends Korean War (1953)

Ike & the CIA • Often used CIA to achieve goals in Cold War. • Headed by Allen Dulles • Iran • Guatemala

Iran • Mossadeq

• Shah of Iran

Problems in Iran • Mossadeq wants to nationalize oil that British and US control. • U.S. uses CIA to organize an uprising that ousts Mossadeq and return the Shah of Iran to power. • Shah lets British and U.S. keep oil.

• Shah is eventually overthrown by Islamic fundamentalists in 1979 and most people in Iran are very anti-U.S.


Guatemala • Jacobo Arbenz is leftist leader. • 2% of country owns all of the land. • US company—United Fruit—controls almost anything modern. • Arbenz want to nationalize the land. • He wants to pay United Fruit, what they said the land was worth for taxes.

The Overthrow • The US cuts off all aid. • Arbenz is forced to turn to the Commies. • The US intercepts an arms shipment. • US aids rightist Castillo Armas take power. • United Fruit is saved--Yay!

Suez Canal Crisis •

US lends money to Nasser—leader of Egypt—to build Aswan Dam (but no arms).

Nassar gets arms from the Soviets.

In 1956—establishes diplomatic relations with Commie. China.

US withdraws loan.

Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal.

France, England, and Israel attack Egypt.

Ike & UN condemn action (doesn’t support). Helps it from blowing up.

Cuba • Castro takes over in 1959. • US won’t give aid, so he turns to Soviets. • Ike severs diplomatic relations.

Relations with Soviets • Seem to be getting better • Khrushchev visits US in 1959.

U2 Incident • In 1960 Ike was getting set to visit the Soviet Union.

• An American U2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. • Ike denied the US was sending planes.

• Soviets produced not only the wreckage of the plane, but also the pilot—Francis Gary Powers.

Fun Review • Quickly jot down what factors and events led to sectional tension between the North and the South that ultimately led to the outbreak of the Civil War?

• What were the major differences between Hamilton and Jefferson in their respective visions for the new nation? • What caused a crisis in American agriculture in the later part of the 19th century and solutions did farmers call for to solve their dilemma?

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