Understanding tourism impacts & types of

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Health Science, Sports Medicine
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Understanding tourism impacts & types of alternative tourism

Aims of today’s lecture:  To illustrate some examples of the potential impacts of tourism on different environments  To critically review ‘alternative tourism(s)’ as

a quest for ‘sustainable tourism’

Some examples of the impacts of tourism on different environments: Video: Impacts of Tourism [G155.A1I45 2001]

Cultural Impacts – preservation, appreciation, cultural exchange, local skills, authenticity.

Physical Impacts - Urban - Rural - Built - Natural Tourism

Social Impacts – social changes, quality of life, ‘spirit of place’, displacement.

Economic Impacts - jobs, income, multplier, development, dependence.

Addressing tourism impacts      

(Sustainable) tourism planning Control & measures (e.g. EIA) Host community support Collaboration Tourist behaviour Global (sustainable) resource management and development

‘Sustainable development’ (Hall & Lew, 2009: 53)

 WCED (Brundtland Report) 1987:

 Holistic planning  Preservation

Development ‘that  Protection meets the needs of the  Sustained productivity present without  Better balance of compromising the fairness & opportunity ability of future between nations generations to meet their own needs’

‘Sustainable tourism’  Informed by the principles of ‘sustainable development’  Meeting the needs of present tourists and host regions

while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future (WTO, 1998)

 Impact studies and assessment take into account

concepts of sustainability  Impact: a change in a given state over time as the result of an external stimulus  Requires more critical and comprehensive analysis; argued to be vague, unrealistic and misguided

Evolution of thought (Lu & Nepal, 2009: 12-13)

 Sustainable tourism is the resolution and the

polar opposite to mass tourism (1980’s)  ST and MT concepts with a continuum of various sustainability dimensions (1990’s)  ST is the (practical) goal to be achieved, not a specific tourism product  (Now) ST is a goal applicable to all forms of tourism (conventional or alternative)

Types of ‘tourism’ under the rubric of ‘sustainable tourism’ Alternative or niche Sustainable tourism

Alternative tourism


Responsible tourism

Volunteer tourism

Heritage tourism

Cultural tourism

Ethical tourism

Pro-poor tourism

Critical tourism

Events tourism

Special interest

Medical tourism

Dental tourism

Wellness tourism

Spa tourism

Dark tourism


Indigenous tourism

Sports tourism

Urban tourism

Aboriginal tourism

Maori tourism

Conference tourism

Wildlife tourism

Education tourism

Cruise tourism

Polar tourism

Rural tourism

Farm tourism

Adventure tourism

Wine tourism

Casino tourism

Movie tourism

Sex tourism

Community tourism


Religious tourism

Spiritual tourism

Marine tourism

Slow tourism

Virtual tourism

Storm tourism

Space tourism

Example: Marlon Brando’s ecotourism island http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oVHadXU8qIo&feature=related

‘Alternative Tourism’ - Is Ecotourism the path to sustainability? • Most commonly reported type of ‘sustainable tourism’ (1993-1997: see Lu & Nepal, 2009: 13) • A marketing tool? (see Wheeler, 1991) • A micro solution to a macro problem? (Liu, 2003)

Example: • The Struggle for Sustainable Tourism in Ecuador [G155.A1 I448 2011]

Summary of key points:    

Impacts indicate change Tourism is a complex ‘system’ Integrated tourism management is required Our understanding of tourism impacts remains fragmented:    

Different scales of analysis Inconsistent research methods Adhoc research Difficulty in distinguishing ‘tourism’ impacts

 Are there ‘alternative’ more sustainable forms of

tourism activity – e.g. volunteering?  Consider ‘alternative’ as product & conceptual ‘ideal’

This week’s reading:  Chapter 1 of Hall & Lew (2009)

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