Unit 2: Homeostasis and Immunity

January 18, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Health Science, Immunology
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

Download Unit 2: Homeostasis and Immunity...

Description

UNIT 2: HOMEOSTASIS AND IMMUNITY Living Environment, Ms. Fazio

TOPICS TO BE COVERED Levels of Organization  Characteristics of Life/Life Processes  Body Systems  Dissection of an Animal Specimen (Bullfrog)  Positive and Negative Feedback  Homeostasis  Disease  Pathogens  Immune Response  AIDS Education 

LESSON 1 – LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION 

 

Learning Objective: Explain how life can be studied at different levels by describing the relationship of the levels of organization through a graphic organizer. Standard:4-1.2 Homework  



Give dissection letter to your parent/guardian(s). Science in the News – Due tomorrow!

DO NOW: Use the glossary in your review book to define the following terms.     

Cell: Tissue: Organ: Organ System: Organism:

LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION 

We can study living things at different levels, whereas smaller levels are found within larger levels.



Group Activity: Based on the definitions of terms you determined in the DO NOW, show the relationship between the smaller levels and larger levels using a graphic organizer. Create this graphic organizer first in your notes before copying to your easels.  Example: 



A tissue is a collection of cells that carry out the same function (or job). Therefore the level of cells is smaller than the level of tissues.

Tissue Cell



The diagram below represents levels of organization in living things.

Which term would best represent X? A. Human B. Tissue C. Stomach D. Organelle

LESSON 2 – CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE   

Learning Objective: Describe some characteristics of living things using one sentence summaries. Standards: 4-1.2 Homework 



Review Book: Read pages 1-3. Complete questions 1-10. Due Tuesday.

DO NOW: Use the glossary in your review book to define the following terms.      

Sexual reproduction: Asexual reproduction: Metabolism: Stimulus: Homeostasis: Evolution:

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE 



All living things have certain common characteristics. HOW living things can carry out these characteristics may differ from organism to organism. Group Activity: 

Use Chapter 1-3 to summarize the eight common characteristics of life into 1 sentence summaries each.

HOW CAN WE REMEMBER THESE CHARACTERISTICS? 

Let’s make a mnemonic!     

Cell Reproduce Genetic Growth Metabolism 

Obtain nutrients, Digestion, Cellular Respiration, Excrete

Homeostasis  Respond to stimuli  Evolve 

LESSON 3 – BODY SYSTEMS 

 

Learning Objective: Define the function of the human body systems and how they interact with each other to maintain homeostasis. Standards: 4-1.2 Homework 



QUIZ on Friday – Body Systems (What is the major function(s) of each body system?)

DO NOW: 

Define the following vocabulary terms using the glossary in your review book:     

Digestion Respiration Circulation Excretion Immunity

MAJOR ORGAN SYSTEMS Muscular System  Skeletal System  Circulatory System  Respiratory System  Nervous System  Digestive System  Excretory System  Endocrine System  Reproductive System 

Heart

Heart

Spinal Cord

A – Liver B – Stomach C - Spleen

A B C

Kidney

ORGAN SYSTEMS 

Group Activity: Your group will be assigned 1-2 organ system(s) to research. Use the textbook and review book to define the major function(s) of the body system as well as major organs of that organ system.  We will jigsaw after small group work, so it is imperative that all group members act as recorders today!!! 

LESSON 4 – LIFE PROCESSES IN UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS Learning Objective: Explain how unicellular organisms carry out life processes by comparing how these processes are carried out by multicellular organisms.  Standards: 4-1.2  Homework 



Review Book: Read pages 8-12. Complete questions 36-45.

DO NOW 

Define the following terms using the glossary in the review book. Unicellular  Multicellular 



Copy the following table into your notebook: Life Function Gas Exchange Transport of nutrients Digestion Excretion Respond to Stimuli/Control

Multicellular Organism

Unicellular Organism

MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS 

What organ system(s) would muticellular organisms use to carry out these life functions?

UNICELLULAR ORGANISM 

What cell organelle(s) or cell part(s) would a unicellular organisms use to carry out these left functions?

LESSON 5 – DISSECTION OVERVIEW 

 

Learning Objective: Discuss safety procedures and techniques necessary to carry out Standards: See Laboratory Checklist Homework 



Review Book: Read pages 158-159. Complete questions 31-34.

DO NOW: Copy the following terms into your notebook:     

Anatomy Dorsal Ventral Anterior Posterior

ANATOMICAL TERMS Anterior – head  Posterior – end of body/tail  Dorsal - belly (front)  Ventral – spinal column (back) 

DORSAL OR VENTRAL? ANTERIOR OR POSTERIOR?

DISSECTION TOOLS A- Scalpel  B - Scissors  D - Tweezers  H - Blunt End Probe  Dissecting Pins (not pictured)  Dissecting Pan (not pictured) 

PREVIEW OF FROG ANATOMY (CARTOON)

LESSON 6 – FROG DISSECTION Learning Objective: Complete a dissection of a bullfrog to expose and study the internal anatomy of an animal.  Standards: (See Laboratory Checklist)  Homework: Finish laboratory analysis questions. 



DO NOW: Read laboratory introduction. Review parts of the frog and organs that you must identify.

LESSON 7 – FEEDBACK MECHANISMS Learning Objective: Describe how organisms respond to stimuli to maintain homeostasis.  Standards:  Homework: Read Review Book pages 25-27. Complete questions 42-53. 



DO NOW: Define the following terms using the glossary in your review book: 

   

Dynamic Equilibrium Negative Feedback Positive Feedback Insulin Guard Cells

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISM Stimulus

Negative Feedback

Reaction

Response

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK EXAMPLE – BODY TEMPERATURE Stimulus: Brain senses a drop in blood temperature.

Negative Feedback: Warmer blood triggers brain to turn-off shivering.

Reaction: Nerve message sent to muscles to start shivering.

Response: Heat is generated that warms the body and blood.

DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM 

Our bodies are constantly responding and adjusting to external and internal stimuli, causes small changes in our body temperature, blood sugar level, etc. We refer to these small changes as dynamic equilibrium. It is because of these small changes that we maintain homeostasis (balance).

GROUP ACTIVITY 

Using the template worksheet, complete the charts to show the negative feedback mechanisms for Blood Sugar Level and Guard Cell in Plants.

POSITIVE FEEDBACK - CHILDBIRTH

Stimulus: A contraction pushes the baby’s head against the base of the uterus.

Positive Feedback

Reaction: Pressure on the base of the uterus causes stronger contractions.

Response: Baby is born and the feedback cycle ends.

LESSON 8 - PATHOGENS 

 



Learning Objective: Discuss types of organisms that can disrupt homeostasis and cause disease. Standards: Homework: Research one example of a pathogen discussed in class today and write a 5-sentence summary about the disease caused by that pathogen. DO NOW: Define the following terms using the glossary in the review book: Disease  Pathogen  Microbe  Infection 

BACTERIA

Syphilis Staphylococcus aureus

Streptococcus

VIRUS

Influenza

HIV

FUNGI

Ringworm

Athlete’s Foot

PARASITE/PROTOZOAN

Tapeworm

Malaria

GROUP ACTIVITY 

Write a brief (1-2 sentence max) description about the pathogen assigned to your table. Write this description on your easel. Use the textbook and review book to help you! 

   

Table 1 – Bacteria Table 2 – Virus Table 3 – Fungi Table 4 – Protozoan Table 5 – Parasite

TREATMENT 

How do we treat these diseases?     

Bacteria – Antibiotics Virus – Vaccine Fungi – Antifungi medication Protozoan – Antiprotozoan medication Parasite – Antiparasite medication

LESSON 9 - DISEASE Learning Objective: Discuss causes that result in failure of homeostasis.  Standards:  Homework: Take-home Quiz 



DO NOW: Define the following terms using the glossary in the review book:

CAUSES OF DISEASES Inherited Disorders  Exposure to Toxins (Poisons)  Poor Nutrition  Organ Malfunction  High-Risk Behaviors  Pathogens (previously discussed) 

GROUP ACTIVITY 

Characterize this cause of disease in 1-2 sentences. Give at least one example of a disease that could result from this cause.  

  

Table 1 – Inherited Disorder Table 2 - Exposure to Toxins Table 3 - Poor Nutrition Table 4 - Organ Malfunction Table 5 - High Risk Behavior

EXAMPLES OF DISEASES 

Inherited Disorders   



Exposure to Toxins (Poisons)   



Kidney Failure Heart Attack Diabetes

High-Risk Behaviors    



Anemia Scurvy (Vitamin C deficiency)

Organ Malfunction   



Alcohol Nicotine Lead

Poor Nutrition  



Cystic Fibrosis Sickle-Cell Anemia Down’s Syndrome

Lung Cancer Skin Cancer AIDS Heart Attack

Pathogens (previously discussed)

LESSON 10 – IMMUNE RESPONSE Learning Objective: Describe how the immune system responds to pathogens so as to fight disease.  Standards:  Homework: Read pages 29-31. Complete question 35-69. 



DO NOW: Define the following terms using the glossary in the review book:    

Antigen Antibody Allergy HIV

THE IMMUNE RESPONSE *Antigen = ID card

Cytotoxic T Cells = Killer T Cells

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ANTIBIOTICS AND ANTIBODIES?

IMMUNE SYSTEM DISORDERS Allergies – the immune system responds to harmless substances (i.e. food, pollen, dust, lotions, etc)  HIV – Attacks Helper T-Cells and weakens immune response. 

VACCINES - MOVIE

SPREAD OF DISEASE SIMULATION

View more...

Comments

Copyright � 2017 NANOPDF Inc.
SUPPORT NANOPDF