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Fitness training and programming
To achieve P1 you need to define each component of fitness, describe one method of training that can be used to improve the following components of fitness: Cardiovascular endurance Muscular endurance Strength Flexibility Body composition Power Speed
To achieve M1 you need to explain the methods of fitness that can be used to develop each component. In your explanations you should give reasons as to why you have selected each method. Consider the: Benefits of each method over others Implications of each method over others
Slightly different to previous assessment tasks as you need to define how to improve each aspect, remember lots of training types can achieve different things dependent of a a variety of factors FITT principle
Frequency: how often you do the activity (e.g 1 sessions a
week, 3 sessions a day) Intensity: How heavy the weight is or how many reps, how hard you have to work to achieve what you are trying to do (RPE scale) Time: how long you exercise for Type: what you are doing linked to the previous three
Commonly long in duration low intensity (4070% HRMAX) aiming to develop the efficiency of the CV system. In recent years interval training and higher intensity bouts (+70%) have provided more “bang for your buck” allowing Athletes to achieve the same in much shorter time frames.
4/4 most commonly used aerobic tool 4 mins on (3 off- active recovery, dynamic stretching, walking, keepups)
Sprints, high intensity interval or fartlek have also been found to improve CV capacity as well as developing other energy systems simultaneously
Longer in duration, lower in intensity (% of 1RM) often in circuit form using body weight or light Dumbbells
Example session: Press ups (3x25), Supine Pull-ups (3x15), Mason
Twists (3x20), Shoulder Push press (3x15), Pull-ups (3x15), S/L BW Squats (3x15 e/l)
To improve strength an athlete needs to be working in and around 80% of their 1RM consistently for 4-6 sets, 4-6 reps with maximal recovery time It is often most effective to train using compound lifts (multi muscle, multi joint), exercises such as Back squat (whole body), opposed to bi-cep curls (isolation of muscles) these exercises are more functional and have more potential to transferring into on-field performance.
There is Variety of ways to effectively train flexibility Dynamic/ ballistic - used in all sports as part of a warm up
to aid injury prevention, short term holds (2-4 seconds, continuously and progressively) Static (passive)- Holding stretch for 15-30 sec Slow Active Stretching (SAS) – Stretch, relax then restretch. Used in pilates, aerobics focusses on breathing techniques Partner assisted- partner hold athlete in a stretch (3/10 pain rating) for 15-30 seconds, great as part of a cool down PNF- similar to partner assisted but has to use of resistance to increase range of motion
Myofascial-release (foam rolling) Strength training- if technique is correct can have
a positive impact on flexibility (for example squat depth will increase flexibility of hamstrings, glutes and hip flexors)
Decrease in body fat can be developed through a multiple of training parameters; Interval, fartlek, continuous, strength, power,
speed. The most effective way is a combination of all alongside a well-managed diet.
Power/ Strength training- high intensity, high velocity (speed) resistance training often using Olympic lifts and their derivative (simpler movements or components of the lifts) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJ2r3pM9xQ
Ballistic/ Plyometric training is also very popular Effective use of the stretch shortening cycle and short contact time will improve power with little or no resistance (weight) required other the body weight.
As long as these rules are followed speed work can take any shape, it needs to be relevant to the sport in context and have appropriate queues (triggers) in order to be effective.
Change of direction in a tight area Use of the ball as a stimulus Competitive element 6 repetitions, 80 second recovery between reps 3 sets c
choice of distance reflected the distances. >50% of sprints studied in the premier league were less than 10m in distance Session: 6 repetitions, 60 second recovery between reps
3 sets Ball as stimulus
Add in GK
Increase distance to 15m Add in changes of direction