Unit 5 LSAR - Lamorinda CERT

January 13, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Architecture
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Contra Costa County CERT Program Unit 5 – Light Search & Rescue

Released: 6 September 2011

Community Emergency Response Team  Personal safety is ALWAYS the number one priority  Work as a team  Wear personal protective equipment…gloves, helmet, goggles, N95 mask and boots

 The CERT goal is to do the

Greatest Good for the Greatest Number  Hope for the best but plan for the worst

Visual 5.1

Unit Objectives

 Identify size-up requirements for potential search and rescue situations  Describe the most common techniques for searching a structure  Use safe techniques for debris removal and victim extrication using a lever and cribbing

Visual 5.2

Top Ten Natural Disasters Event


Hurricane Katrina (AL, LA, MS)


$7.2 billion*

Northridge Earthquake (CA)


$6.961 billion

Hurricane Georges (AL, FL, LA, MS, PR, VI)


$2.251 billion

Hurricane Ivan (AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, NJ, NY, PA, TN, WVA)


$1.947 billion**

Hurricane Andrew (FL, LA)


$1.813 billion

Hurricane Charley (FL, SC)


$1.559 billion**

Hurricane Frances (FL, GA, NC, NY, OH, PA, SC)


$1.425 billion**

Hurricane Jeanne (DE, FL, PR, VI, VA)


$1.407 billion**

Tropical Storm Allison (FL, LA, MS, PA, TX)


$1.387 billion

Hurricane Hugo (NC, SC, PR, VI)


$1.307 billion

Visual 5.3

FEMA Funding

Ranked By FEMA Relief Costs

What is the chance of a big earthquake? "The

USGS has estimated a 62 percent chance of a magnitude 6.7 or larger earthquake in the Bay Area within the next 28 years"

- John Rundle, director of the Center for Computational Science and Engineering at the University of California, Davis 2008

Visual 5.4

The Bay Area Risk Assessment

Visual 5.5

Rescue Skills Needed


USAR Teams

Void Space Non-Structural Entrapment


Emergency Services Provider

Non-Structural Entrapment


CERT Teams

Injured NOT Trapped


Spontaneous Rescue Teams


Visual 5.6

The Golden Day Entrapped Victim Survival Rate

Time Until Rescue

Survival Rate

30 Minutes


1 Day


2 Days


3 Days


4 Days


5 Days


Visual 5.7

Buck Helm’s Car Cypress Structure Loma Prieta Earthquake Photo Courtesy of Ben Ho

Goals of Search and Rescue

 Keep rescuers safe  Rescue greatest number in shortest amount of time  Get “walking wounded” out first  Rescue lightly trapped victims next

Visual 5.8

Search and Rescue Operations 1. Size-up Evaluate everything that is going on 2. Search Locate victims Document location 3. Rescue Involve procedures and methods to extricate victims

Visual 5.9

Search and Rescue Safety  Always have a whistle!  The following “Emergency Alerting System” is to be used in the event of problems at the site:  Evacuate - 3 short blasts (1 second each) • Out – Out - Out • Drop everything and get out now!  Cease Operations - 1 long blast (3 seconds duration) • Quiet • Stop what you’re doing and wait for instructions  Resume Operations -1 long and 1 short blast • Oooh - Kay

This is the FEMA US&R Standard

Visual 5.10

Search and Rescue Safety  Earthquakes aftershocks 

Severe after shocks following a major earthquake are common and can create additional injuries and fatalities  Unstable structures including bridges, overpasses, high rises, homes and water towers may suffer further collapse as a result of after shocks  First responders must be constantly aware that they may be affected by such events and take necessary precautions while conducting their operations.  Many injuries and deaths of first responders could be prevented if more precautions against additional shock waves were taken

Visual 5.11

Search and Rescue Safety  With the constant threat of terrorist attacks it is essential that response teams pay special attention to a very new and potentially deadly threat

 Everyone has to heighten their awareness of their surroundings

 Secondary explosions are becoming common techniques used to cause serious injury and possibly mass death for response teams

 There are no second chances when explosions are used for this purpose

 After an explosion it is safe to assume that a secondary devise is involved, unless proven otherwise Visual 5.12

Before You Start

STOP Stop Think Organize Plan Visual 5.13

Effective Search and Rescue  Effective size-up  Rescuer safety

 Victims safety

Visual 5.14

CERT Search and Rescue Size-up 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Gather Facts Assess Damage and Communicate Consider Probabilities Assess Your Situation Establish Priorities Make Decisions Develop Plan of Action Take Action Evaluate Progress

Visual 5.15

Step 1: Gather Facts Consider:  Time of event and day of week  Type of structure and construction type  Weather  Hazards  Occupancy Gather facts accurately Visual 5.16

Step 2: Assess Damage

 360 degree (overview and assessment)  Identify entry and egress routes  Identify hazards  Is it safe to enter ?  Potential for occupants  Interview

neighbors  Voice ‘call out’

Visual 5.17

Assess Damage CERT mission changes if:  Damage is light  Damage is moderate  Damage is heavy Consider structure type and age Never enter a structure with heavy damage!

Visual 5.18

Assess Damage Light Damage

Light: Superficial or cosmetic damage, broken windows, fallen plaster; primary damage to contents of structure Visual 5.19

Locate, triage, and prioritize removal of victims to designated treatment areas by the medical operation teams

Assess Damage Moderate Damage

Moderate: Questionable structural stability; fractures, tilting, foundation movement or displacement

Locate, stabilize, and immediately evacuate victims to a safe area while minimizing the number of rescuers inside the building

Visual 5.20

Assess Damage Heavy Damage

Heavy: Obvious structural instability; partial or total wall collapse, ceiling failures Visual 5.21

Secure the building perimeter and control access into the structure by untrained but well-intentioned volunteers

Heavy Damage

Assess Damage

Loma Prieta earthquake damage in San Francisco. The soft first story is due to construction of garages in the first story and resultant reduction in shear strength. Photo from: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/bytopic/photos.html Visual 5.22

Collapse Zone: Stay Out of This Area • The collapse zone is one and a half times the height of the building (X), in all directions (Y) • Example: 40’ tall building, collapse zone is 60’ out from building

Danger tape goes here Visual 5.23

• For buildings, chimneys and other tall things that can fall or crumble

Hazards – Light Frame Construction  Loose HVAC equipment  Cracked stucco  Check doors and frame to see        

Visual 5.24

if square Brick chimneys Broken electrical Lines Masonry veneer can fall off House off foundation Broken glass Loose roof tiles Separated porches or overhangs Broken Gas and Water lines

Frame House Forces

Visual 5.25

Light Frame Collapse Pattern

Visual 5.26

Light Frame Construction

Copyright FEMA News Photo

Visual 5.27

Separation Between Buildings Are walls parallel? Don’t Get Caught in the Middle!

Visual 5.28

Above Ground Hazards

Fallen Fixtures Loose Ceiling Structure Glass Unsecured Furniture

Visual 5.29

Ground Level Hazards Unstable Buildings Falling Debris Energized Wires Loose Footing Hazmat Emotionally Unstable Survivors Fire Glass Animals

Visual 5.30

Natural Gas: Locate The Shutoff

Visual 5.31

Water Service: Locate The Shutoff

Visual 5.32

Below Level Hazards

Visual 5.33

Step 3: Consider Probabilities Consider what probably will happen and what could happen

 How stable is the  

situation? What else could go wrong? What it all means for the Search and Rescue?

Visual 5.34

Step 4: Assess Your Situation Assess :  Whether the situation is safe enough to continue  The risks that rescuers will face if they continue  What resource you will need to conduct the operation safely  What resources are available  Personnel  Equipment  Tools

Visual 5.35

Know Your Limitations

Visual 5.36

Take A Break

BE BACK IN 10 MINUTES Visual 5.37

CERT Search and Rescue Size-up 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Gather Facts Assess Damage Consider Probabilities Assess Your Situation Establish Priorities Make Decisions Develop Plan of Action Take Action Evaluate Progress

Visual 5.38

Step 5: Establish Priorities

 What should be done?  In what order?  How to rescue the greatest number in the shortest amount of time?

Visual 5.39

Step 6: Make Decisions

 Keep in mind:  Safety

of CERT members  Life safety for victims and others  Protection of the environment  Protection of property

Visual 5.40

Step 7: Develop Plan of Action

 Focus operation on established priorities  

and decisions Provide for documentation to give to responding agencies Provide for documentation to become part of CERT records

Visual 5.41

Safety Considerations

 Make rescuer safety your primary concern  Use a buddy system  Be alert for hazards  Use safety equipment  Rotate teams Teamwork = Success

Visual 5.42

Search Methodology An effective search methodology:

 Is systematic and thorough  Avoids unnecessary duplication 

Visual 5.43

of effort Provides for documentation of search results

Search Methods 1. 2. 3. 4.

Call out to victims Stop frequently to listen Use systematic search pattern Mark searched areas to document what you found 5. Report what you found

Visual 5.44

Conducting Search Operations  Pancake Voids: Pancake voids (most common in pre-1933 buildings) are small voids throughout a structure that are created by weakening or destruction of load-bearing walls and the resulting collapse of floors onto each other.  Lean-To Voids: Lean-to voids are created when a collapsed wall or floor is resting against an outside wall, creating a pocket of space.  “V” Voids: These voids are created by a “V” collapse of a floor or wall: the middle collapses and the ends lean against the outside walls..

Visual 5.45

Conducting Search Operations Individual Voids

Visual 5.46

Conducting Search Operations Be thorough in your search !

Visual 5.47

Decision To Attempt Rescue

 Risk involved to the rescuer  Greatest good for greatest number of people

Visual 5.48

Step 8: Take Action Start the Search

       

Identify alternate exits Stay together & along the walls Start search from top down Right or left handed pattern Continue to call out and listen Move slowly testing the floor Mark each individual unit Complete “X” after leaving

Visual 5.49

While Searching  Always know the closest way out  Knock, shout, and listen 

Call out to victims

“If anyone can hear my voice, come here” 

Ask any victims who do respond for more information about the building or others who may be trapped

 Search under & around debris  Check elevators  Victims might be in shock or confused Always be alert for aftershocks, fires, and the smell of gas Visual 5.50

Conducting Search Operations Be Systematic !

Visual 5.51

Conducting Search Operations Be Systematic !

Visual 5.52

Conducting Search Operations


Visual 5.53

Search Marking System  Indicates rescuer location  Prevents duplication of effort  Search Marking is a Perishable Skill and must be practiced regularly

Visual 5.54

Search Marking System

NE means No Entry made

Visual 5.55

Victim Marking System

Make a large “V” (2’ x 2’) with marker or Orange Paint near the known or potential victim. Add team ID and arrow with distance to the victim. Visual 5.56

Victim Marking System

Make a circle around the “V” when a potential victim has been confirmed to be alive. If more than one confirmed live victim, mark total number under the “V”. Visual 5.57

Victim Marking System

Make a horizonal line through the “V” when a potential victim has been confirmed to be dead. If a combination of live and deceased victims are found, make two “V”s. Visual 5.58

Victim Marking System

When all victims have been removed, make an “X” over the symbol.

Visual 5.59

Building Marking System CERT OK



Visual 5.60

Buildings are marked by Structural Engineers only!

Search Marking Examples

Visual 5.61

Building Marking Example

Visual 5.62

Exterior Search

 Set up a grid search  Set distance between searchers according to visibility and debris  Overlap patterns for full coverage  Search in as straight a line as possible  Mark areas that have been searched Visual 5.63

Conducting Rescue Operations

Visual 5.64

Conducting Rescue Operations

 Maintain rescuer safety  Create a safe rescue environment  Move

debris and objects out of the way  Use tools not your backs to move objects  Triage and stabilize victims in lightly and moderately damaged buildings  Evacuate victims quickly but safely

Visual 5.65

Proper Lifting Method

 Back straight  Bend knees  Keep load close to body  Push up with legs

Visual 5.66

Extrication Method Depends upon:  General stability of immediate environment  Number of rescuers available  Tools and equipment available  Strength and ability of rescuers  Condition of victim

Visual 5.67

Removing Victims Types of victim removal include:  Self-removal or assist  Lifts and drags

Allow victims to extricate themselves when possible

Visual 5.68

Single Person Lift If safety and time permit, you should not use lifts and drags to remove victims when closed-head or spinal injury is suspected

One-Person Pack-Strap Carry

One-Person Arm Carry

Not Good Visual 5.69

Two-Person Carry

Two-Person Carry

Chair Carry

Better Visual 5.70

Drags Backs!

Visual 5.71


Transporting Victims




Watch your backs!! Visual 5.72

Leveraging and Cribbing Operations

Visual 5.73


Planning / Staging

 Conduct a size-up of the scene  Have one person in charge and formulate a plan of action  Gather necessary materials for leveraging (lifting) and cribbing operations

Visual 5.74

Leveraging And Cribbing  When a large object such as a collapsed wall or heavy debris needs to be moved in order to free victims, leverage and cribbing may be used. 

Leverage is obtained by wedging a lever (pole or other long object) under the object that needs to be moved with a stationary object underneath it to act as a fulcrum. When the lever is forced down over the fulcrum, greater force is obtained to lift the object.  A crib is a framework of wooden, plastic or metal bars used for support or strengthening. Box cribbing means arranging pairs of wood pieces alternately to form a stable rectangle. In a disaster situation, debris may be available to use for cribbing. Leveraging and Cribbing are Perishable Skills and must be practiced regularly

Visual 5.75

Leveraging  Lever Defined: A rigid bar, either straight or bent, that is free to move on a fixed point called a fulcrum  A lever works by transferring a force from one place to another while at the same time changing the direction of the force

Clallam County Technical Rescue Team photo

Visual 5.76

Cribbing Video

Visual 5.77

Leveraging (Lifting) Lift an inch, Crib an inch  Stabilize the object to be lifted  Initiate the lift using the lever and fulcrum for mechanical advantage

 Have someone available to handle the victim  As the object is lifted, add cribbing as needed; build on the foundation of the box crib

 When the object is adequately supported, the victim may be removed

Visual 5.78

Cribbing 24,000 lbs. total if load is supported by 4 joints 54,000 lbs. total if load is supported by 9 joints

Visual 5.79

4” x 4” wood

6,000 lbs. at each joint

Cribbing  Wood fails at cut ends first  Overlap ends by width of member – 4x4 = 3.5” overlap  Don’t crib higher than three times the width of the crib  Load needs to be supported with wood-to-wood contact all the way to the ground

Visual 5.80

Cribbing  Shims are used to match the angle of a surface

 Shims balance the load by ensuring even contact

Copyright Marin Sheriff’s Search & Rescue

Visual 5.81

Cribbing  Wedges are used as variable height crib members  Wedges are inserted as Married Pairs  Wedges can be used as Inclined Planes to prevent sliding movement  Single wedges can be used for temporary stabilization until flat pieces can be inserted

Visual 5.82

Cribbing Operations Cribbing Operations Check list

S- Safety: Are we safe S- Size up: The situation S- Stabilize: All four corners R- Remove: Debris R- Raise: The load R- Rescue: Pull victim clear Keep hands and toes clear of the load.

Visual 5.83

Resource Arrangement Example

Safety Officer

Visual 5.84

Cribbing Example

 Stabilize structures  Entry & Egress  Provide rescuer safety  Access to victims

Visual 5.85

Step 9: Evaluate Progress

 Most critical step  Monitor plan’s effectiveness and safety

Visual 5.86

Unit Summary

 CERT size-up for potential search and rescue situations  Search techniques  Lifts and drags  Levers and cribbing

Visual 5.87

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