Unit Three: Global Interactions (1200 – 1650)

January 8, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, World History, Middle Ages
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Unit Three: Global Interactions (1200 – 1650) As a result of the Crusades, there was an increase in trade. Following the Crusades, global trading networks were established.

Japan & Geography Archipelago (a chain of islands) Japan is 85% mountainous Japan has been protected from invasion by the Sea of Japan (ex. Mongols in the 13th century)

Japan & Geography Japanese rely on terrace farming and the sea for food Japan lacks many natural resources “ring of fire” (volcanoes & earthquakes in the Pacific).

Tokugawa Japan and the Korean Peninsula

Early Traditions in Japan Patriarchal (male dominated) Heavily influenced by Buddhism and Confucianism Filial Piety (respect for elders)

Shintoism Japanese pray in Shinto Shrines Shintoism (ancestor worship, Kami {spirit} & respect for nature) Shintoism has been a unifying force in Japan

Korea as a bridge for Chinese ideas in Japan Many fundamental aspects of Japanese life were borrowed from the Chinese via Korea (ex. Character Writing, architecture {Pagoda}, Buddhism, Confucianism)

Selective Borrowing The notion that the Japanese borrowed foreign ideas that met there needs (examples. Confucianism, language, tea ceremony) and blended these ideas with their own original traditions to create their unique culture.

Early Japanese History & Feudalism There has been only one imperial bloodline in Japan tracing its roots back to the Yamato clan prior to 500AD.

Heian Period 700 – 1100 AD A celebrated period in Japanese history where the imperial court lived in elegance. The emperor ruled with real power.

Shoguns (1192 – 1868) Overtime the emperor lost real power to the military commanders A shogun was a top military commander who assumed actual power in Japan. The emperor was a figurehead.

Social hierarchy in Japan Samurai – followed the code of the bushido (code of conduct for warriors) Farmers Artisans Merchants (the lowest class according to Confucian values)

Comparison to European Feudalism Both societies had a rigid class structure with the warriors as the upper class and an emphasis on social order. Both societies had a code of conduct for warriors (Japanese Samurai – Bushido, European knights – Chivalry)

The landed nobility controlled the daily lives of those living on their property in exchange for providing protection for them.

Tokagawa Shogunate (1600’s – 1868) This family line ruled Japan in relative peace for 300 years. It followed a foreign policy of isolationism. (Japan was not opened to trade with the outside world again until the 1853 visit of American Commodore Matthew Perry). Cultural advances during this time include haiku (Japanese poetry)

The rise and fall of the Mongols Empire

Genghis Khan

Pax Mongolia The golden age of the Mongols

Kublai Khan Kublai Khan, ruler of half the known world, in 1260 A.D. established an official alphabet for his empire. He intended for it to serve all the languages from Austria to Korea-to unify his vast Mongolian Empire

Impact on Central Asia and China The Mongols were superior horseman and were able to conquer most of Asia

Mongols& Russia The Mongols controlled Russia from the early 1200’s until 1480, during which time Russian contact with Europe was limited.

The Mongols in China The Yuan Dynasty1279 - 1368

Marco Polo

Ibn Battuta World traveler from Morocco. He first visited Mecca, then proceeded to the far east. The records of his travels helped historians.

The rise and fall of African Civilizations Ghana (800 – 1000 AD) Mali (1200 AD– 1450 AD) Songhai (1450 AD – 1600 AD)

All three kingdoms maintained trading networks across the Sahara desert The main export was gold, which made each kingdom wealthy, and provided them with the conditions for cultural and intellectual achievement.

Located along trade routes One similarity between the Ancient African kingdoms of Egypt, Ghana, Mali and Songhai is that all of these kingdoms were located on major trade routes in Africa.

Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were all influenced by Islam

Mosque located in Mali

The contributions of the ancient civilizations of Ghana, Axum, Kush, and Mali demonstrate that advanced societies developed in Africa before Europeans colonized this region

Ghana (800 AD– 1000 AD) Controlled gold-salt trade routes in West Africa Viewed king as semidivine High status held by women Influenced by Muslims

Mali (1200 AD– 1450 AD) Expanded influence over gold-salt trade. Emphasized peace and order Mansu Musa - great Mali emperor

Mansa Musa Mansu Musa - a great Islamic emperor who went on a famous hajj to Mecca calling attention to the great Mali Empire

Timbuktu Timbuktu became a center for Islamic learning Islamic scholars traveled from around the Muslim world to study and teach and the University of Timbuktu.

Axum East African trading kingdom located along the Red Sea The Axum were descendents from African farmers and Arabian traders

Axum Introduced both Jewish and Christian traditions in Africa

Songhai (1450 AD – 1600 AD) Largest West African state Controlled trade routes in West Africa Muslim Set up efficient government and bureaucracy The Songhai were defeated by people using European weaponry

Commercial Revolution There was a basic economic change. Europe went from self-sufficient manors to establishing global trading networks that relied on capitalism.

Trade grows Goods from east are in demand (silks and spices) in Europe Towns grow as commerce increases.

Trade fairs and towns As monarchs collected tax revenue from business people, the monarch grew stronger and nobles lost power (the Kings no longer relied on the nobles for defense because they were able to hire professional armies with the newly collected taxes).

As Trade increases The power of kings increases The power of the nobles decreases. A middle class grows Feudalism is weakened

New Business Practices Partnerships and Joint Stock Companies emerge. Banking grows Insurance industry grows (insurance helped to reduce the risk of investors).

Hanseatic League An organization of northern German business people who bonded together to protect their business interests

Hanseatic League To protect shipping, they addressed piracy issues and built lighthouses in the Baltic Sea. They successfully set up monopolies in various industries in Northern Europe.

Trade Guilds A guild was a type of trade association. Guilds would protect the interests of its members by ensuring high quality, regulating prices and provided social services for its members.

Major centers of trade: Nanjing Calcutta Mogadishu Venice Florence

Expansion of the Portuguese Spice Trade to Southeast Asia Prince Henry’s School for Sailors

A major innovator of his time.

Black Death One - third of Europe’s population died as a result of this plague. It was transmitted by fleas on the backs of rats.

Black Death One - third of Europe’s population died as a result of this plague. It was transmitted by fleas on the backs of rats.

Increasing power of Kings & Rise of Nation-States France Spain England Russia

The Renaissance (1350-1600) Renaissance means a “rebirth” of culture and learning in Western Europe.

Renaissance - A rebirth in learning Driven by the spirit of questioning (learned from the Ancient Greece and Romans - the “classic civilizations”) Renewed interest in the individual. Emphasis on art and literature. Creativity in the arts was encouraged

The Renaissance begins in Italy The Italian peninsula was a center of trade. Center of GrecoRoman culture. Center of the Catholic Church.

Renaissance cities City-States such as Florence and Milan grew rich in trade between Europe and The Middle East.

Characteristics of the Renaissance

Humanism Questioning Attitude Interest in Secular, or non religious worldly, matters. Rise of a wealthy middle class ($) Great achievements in the arts.

Humanism • Humanism was an intellectual movement where people began to focus on life in the present, which was in contrast to the Middle Ages' focus on the after life. • Humanism also stressed the importance of the individual. • This movement was the driving force of the Renaissance and is reflected in the period's artistic, literary, and scientific achievements.


Challenged the traditional teachings of the Catholic Church and medieval thinking.

Humanism stressed the importance of education, with the study of ancient Greek and Roman texts becoming the learning standard.

Individual Achievement In Europe, a major characteristic of humanism was an appreciation for the basic worth of individual achievement European Renaissance: Question 1 of 15

Greco-Roman revival

Lorenzo de’ Medici A wealthy and powerful merchant from Florence. Used his wealth to become a patron of the arts.

A changing style in the arts From religious to secular: a shift in world view

Medieval Art (before the Renaissance) Artists depicted subjects in an unrealistic, two dimensional style to indicate the importance of the soul over the body

Characteristics of Renaissance Art Three dimensional (Illusion of depth) realistic lifelike influenced by GrecoRoman culture

RENAISSANCE ARTISTS Leonardo da Vinci Michaelangelo Raphael Donatello

Leonardo da Vinci-He was a Master painter in the old style who was also a gifted Engineer, Architect and Researcher;

Leonardo da Vinci The ideal “Renaissance Man” Leonardo da Vinci is considered to be the true Renaissance man. He had an interest and talents in many fields.

Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci made contributions as an: Inventor Scientist Architect Painter

Mona Lisa Notice the subject is a lay person Notice the use of shading Relatively lifelike

The Last Supper Subject is still religious in nature. Notice the use of perspective showing depth.


The Coronation of the Virgin

A close up of the apostles in ”The Coronation of the Virgin”

The School of Athens




Sistine Chapel


Face and shoulders of Donatellos Bronze David

Brueghel A peasant wedding & The Harvest

Literature Are you familiar with the works of Shakespeare?

Machiavelli A political philosopher. Authored The Prince. This handbook advises princes how to remain in power “The end justifies the means” Leaders should do whatever is necessary to achieve their goals

No Central Government existed in Italy, there were individual city-states.

Architecture St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome

1455 -Development of the Printing Press Invented by Johann Gutenberg Allowed for the rapid spread of ideas.

Effects of the Renaissance The philosophy of humanism brought about a decrease in the power of the Roman Catholic Church (European Renaissance: Question 5 of 15) The questioning spirit led to the Reformation and the Age of Exploration

The Protestant Reformation

Protestant Reformation 1517-1650 To protest = To object To reform = To change for the better The Protestant Reformation: Protested practices of the Catholic Church.

Reformation Catholic church lost power as people converted to protestant religions. New religions included: Lutheranism and Anglicanism.

Reformation King and Princes in Northern Europe resented the power of the Vatican and supported the protestants as a way of escaping the power of the Church.

Underlying causes of the Reformation The Renaissance, led people to question the authority of the church and place greater faith in human reason. The rise of nation-states led monarchs to resent the power of the pope in their countries.

Underlying Causes of the Reformation Economic restrictions such as the ban on usury, or the lending of money at interest, created opposition to the Catholic Church among members of the new middle class. Resentment of the tithe (10% tax). Corruption within the Catholic

Martin Luther

In Wittenburg Germany Martin Luther posted a list of complaints against the catholic church called The Ninety-Five Thesis, or questions for debate.

Luther condemned the church Luther condemned the Catholic for : Selling indulgences Nepotism Its interpretation of the Bible

Indulgences Indulgences were pardons for sins that could be purchased. It equaled paying for forgiveness.

Nepotism The Selling of positions of power within the Catholic Church.

Interpretation of the Bible Martin Luther believed that faith alone guaranteed salvation (afterlife).


Based on the teachings of John Calvin. Predestination- only those chosen by god would get salvation. 1. Moral lives 2. Hard Work 3. Simple lives

The Anglican Church or Church of England was started by King Henry VIII

Henry VIII

Henry was not a true reformer, yet broke from the Catholic Church and the pope. When denied a divorce Henry issued the Act of Supremacy and created a national religion for England.

Religious Wars

Religious differences led to 100 years warfare. Protestant England engaged in a naval war with Spain. Thirty Years War in Germany (1618-1648)

Results of the Reformation New Religions Religious Wars Greater power for civil authorities The Counter Reformation

The Counter Reformation Council of Trent -An attempt to stop the spread of Protestant religions The council confirmed church teachings and instituted reforms such as ending the sale of indulgences.

Results of the Counter Reformation The Inquisition Church courts that had the power to execute those convicted of being heretics. The Index- a list of books Catholics were forbidden to read Loyola

Results of the Counter Reformation Religious persecution against non-catholics (ex. Jews and Muslims in Spain) Despite these moves the Counter Reformation was unable to restore the former membership,power and prestige of the church.

Results of the Reformation Religious diversity - England was Anglican - Much of Northern Germany was Lutheran Religious disunity as evidenced by a number of religious wars.

Martin Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses were a call for a) religious revolt against the German princes b) reforms within the Roman Catholic Church c) greater papal authority d) crusades to spread Christianity

1453 - Fall of the Byzantine Empire After surviving 1,000 after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire was defeated by the Ottomans.

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