Participation of Youth and Democratic Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean
Afro-peruvian Population An Outstanding Agenda Lic. Rocío Muñoz Flores Especialista en Población Afroperuana Ministerio de Cultura - Perú
Afro-peruvian population. ¿How many are there?
According to the Civil Society Organizations, the afro-peruvian population ranges between 8 - 10% of the total population , it means that we are talking about almost 2 million people. If we take into account the National Household Survey Information(NHSI) from the fourth quarter of 2003, in which the variable of ethnic self-identification was incorporated, the Afro-descendant population would represent 1% of the total population of the Peru. According to the ENCO in 2006, 150,516 afro-peruvian homes were identified; they include 669,143 family members. Note that the survey highlights a significant number of people auto-identified as afro-peruvians in Ayacucho (2,039 homes), Arequipa (1,188 homes), Junín (1094 homes), andean regions. According to ENAHO 2010 the afro-peruvian population will be the 3.1% of the total.
Afro-peruvian population • According to the Office of the Ombudsman’s report Nº 003– 2011–DP/ADHPD, “The Afrodescendants in Peru. An approach to their reality and the exercise of their rights”, AfroPeruvians live in a situation of vulnerability, postponement and invisibility that generates a negative impact on the full exercise of their rights. • According to a latest report of UNDP (2012) the Afro-Peruvian population recorded lower levels of development than other populations in the Peru.
Afro-peruvian population Poverty
• According ENAHO 2004 and ENCO 2006 the 35.7% of the Afro Peruvians are in poverty which exceeds the percentage of the national average (34.8%). National Household Survey (NHS)
• The Office of the Ombudsman in its latest report on Afro-Peruvian population mentioned that 60% of Afro-Peruvian families have chronic diseases more than 11 points higher than the national average percentage. (report Nº 003–2011–DP/ADHPD, “Afrodescents in Peru. An approach to their reality and the exercise of their rights)
Education • Regarding university education only 2% of the Afro-Peruvian population, manages to conclude their studies, according to reports the Peruvian State in its periodic report to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination(CERD - 2008) • In a recent study presented by UNDP on the socio-economic situation of the Afro-Peruvian population (2012): the illiteracy rate has been reduced by the Peru. However, according to the data of the ENAHO 2010, AfroPeruvians have 8.6% of illiterate people, similar percentage in statistical terms than that recorded by the Indians. This illiteracy rate is almost double the registered for mestizos that reachs to 4.7%. • In the case of the Afro-Peruvian, the illiteracy rate exceeded men's by 6.7 percentage points, doubling it by far, data that shows the situation of disadvantage they face in terms of education (UNDP, 2012).
CERD - COMMITTEE FOR THE ELIMINATION OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION2009 Subjects of concern and recommendations • Taking into account that the 1993 Political Constitution recognizes and protects the ethnic and cultural plurality of the Peruvian nation, the Committee remains concerned that a high percentage of persons belonging to indigenous peoples and Afro-Peruvian communities continue to suffer de facto racism and structural racial discrimination that exists in the member State. • The Committee recommends to the member State to undertake action to combat racial discrimination through the elaboration of a global and national policy against racism and racial discrimination. The Committee further requests the member State to include in its next report indicators on the enjoyment of the rights guaranteed in the draft of the Constitution by the different indigenous peoples and Afro-Peruvian communities, disaggregated by urban / rural population, age and sex.
CERD - Recommendations •
The Committee recommends that the member State to continue improving the methodology used in the census so that it reflects the complexity of Peruvian society taking into account the principle of self-identification, in accordance with its general recommendation No. 8 and paragraphs 10 to 12 of the guidelines concerning the document specifically intended for the Committee to be submitted by member States in accordance with paragraph 1 of article 9 of the Convention(CERD/C/2007/1). The Committee urges the member State to carry out a study on the AfroPeruvian population that allows to define their needs and to develop action plans, programmes and effective public policies in all spheres of the public life of the Afro-Peruvian communities. The Committee encourages the member State to undertake actions in the short and medium term for the effective implementation of measures that reduce illiteracy among indigenous and Afro. Also the next report of the member State shall contain precise data on the percentage of indigenous and Afro-Peruvians who have access to primary, secondary and university education.
Perceptions of discrimination • A research of the study for the defence of women's rights (DEMUS 2004) indicates that indigenous groups and Afridescents in the country are subject to discriminatory practices to a greater extent than the rest of the population. An study of GRADE states that afroperuvians have affirmed to be subject of discrimination especially by racial ethnic reasons (Condevilla, Lima 31.4% de 237 respondents)
Bullying in school to young people aged between 12 and 18, by household type
Bullying (nicknames and jokes) reported by young respondents reveals significant differences. The racial content of these practices is much greater in the case of young afro descendant homes, (GRADE: Benavides Martin, 2011)
Discrimination and Intersectionallity • Racial discrimination interrelates with other categories such as gender, class, 'race', sexuality, etc. that exalt the conditions of discrimination and subordination, contributing to strengthen the mechanisms of exclusion and generating a context of social inequality that is exacerbated by the stereotypes and social representations around the Afro-Peruvian population, in particular young women.
The Impact • Low educational and occupational mobility. • Access to employment is much more complex in women and young people. • Unrecognized ability of entrepreneurship in young men and women mainly • Mostly negative social representations and impacting on sexuality • Stereotypes in relation to the academic and intellectual ability • The media’s role in reproducing stereotypes
Viceministerio de Interculturalidad
Policy statements for Afro-peruvian population • It will be an instrument that will define a set of guidelines for the actions of the different sectors of the State in relation to Afro-Peruvian population. • It seeks to contribute to the design of strategies to promote the development and the discrimination affecting AfroPeruvian population from an intercultural, intergenerational and gender perspective. • The document will result in the dialogue and contributions of Afro-Peruvian organizations and the State. • The development of this initiative has UNDP support.
Specialized survey for the Afroperuvian population • With the recommendations of the Committee for elimination of Racial Discrimination, the Action Plan of Durban and the Office of the Ombudsman, we are coordinating the implementation of a specialized survey to Afro-Peruvian population with INEI • The survey will allow to obtain specific and disaggregated socio-economic information on Afro-Peruvian population in order to achieve a baseline that contributes to effectuate public policy for the development and improvement of the quality of life of this important sector of the population. • A working group in which participates the State and civil society institutions has been formed.
Institucionalization and Visibility • Establishes the Direction of Afrodescendants Policies within the Viceminister of Interculturality of the Minister of Culture, in order to have better conditions for the political rectory and the mainstreaming of the Afro-Peruvian agenda. • Spaces of dialogue and coordination with the Afro-Peruvian civil society organizations. • Technical advice and assistance to the actions implemented in the various sectors of the State at all levels. • Create spaces to produce information through the dialogue and debate facing the situation of the Afro-Peruvian population from an intercultural and gender approach, with the participation of Afro-Peruvian organizations, the academy and the State.
Lic. Rocío Muñoz Flores Especialista en Población Afroperuana Dirección General de Interculturalidad y Derechos de los Pueblos Viceministerio de Interculturalidad Ministerio de Cultura - Perú [email protected]
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