World War I Power Point
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1st World War in history
•Great War or War to End all War •Not called WWI until after WWII •Total war •Involved 60 nations and 6 continents
Cost of War •$400 billion •$10 million dollars an hour 16 million deaths •First war of the Industrial Revolution…… New Weapons vs old tactics of fighting
European powers were going to all parts of the world to gain land.
Africa, Asia, The Pacific By 1910, the most desirable
been taken. Germany envied France and Britain b/c they had the most richest colonies. They soon realized that the only way to get land in Africa was to take it away from the colonizers.
European nations competing for colonies around the world…..Imperialism
forms- 1: to act in the country’s own national interest. Ex: Alsace-Lorraine-strip of land on the boarder of France and Germany. Had been taken by Germany in 1871 and France was expecting to gain it back. Germany did not want to give it up. This caused problems in their relationship.
longing for an ethnic minority independence in a nation where there are many different/diverse groups. Ex: Austria-Hungary- Hungarians and German speaking Austrians governed millions of Czechs, Slovaks, Poles Italians, Romanians and Serbs. These different groups wanted their own independent self government and lands. This often caused conflict within the nation itself.
up a nation’s military for war and giving them more power than the government. Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Russia Spend large sums of money on new weapons and warships. All of these countries were preparing for war.
Alliances •European nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power ……..
Triple Alliance Central Powers
Triple Entente Allied Powers
Germany Austria-Hungary Empire Bulgaria
Great Britain France Russia
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Franz Ferdinand’s funeral procession
Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI.
the Archduke was assassinated, Bosnia along with Serbia were annexed to Austria-Hungary. Austria-Hungary was convinced Serbia has something to do with the killings. They used this excuse to declare war on Serbia on July 28, 1914. This set off the chain reaction of alliances throughout Europe.
29, 1914- (Russia was Serbia’s protector) began mobilization. Germany demanded Russia stop. They didn’t. Germany declared war on Russia. Russia’s
ally France declared war on Germany.
declares war on Belgium.
Britain declared war on Germany.
sweep through France to knock the French out of the war then turn east and defeat Russia.
is between France and Russia.
plan was put in order to avoid fighting both countries at the same time.
had to pass through Belgium to get to France Belgium was neutral. Germany
hoped Britain would stay out of
the war. The invasion of Belgium brought Britain into the war. 1 week after the conflict started all of Europe’s great powers were involved.
Archduke and Wife Assassinated
Germany Demands Russia Stop
Germany’s Schlieffen Plan
Austria-Hungary Declares war on Serbia July 28, 1914
Russian’s ally France readies troops
Britain Enters War after invasion of Belgium August 4, 1914
Russia Begins Mobilization July 29, 1914
Germany Declares war on Russia August 1,1914
Central Powers and Allies Formed
Both sides can’t gain the
and France and Britain
Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria join Central Powers
and Romania join Allies
guns and rapid fire artillery
Tanks Submarines Poison
of Somme in 1916 British troops lost 20,000 troops in one day.
Contracted Constant No
lice from rats
(French had 1,000,000 casualties in first 3 months of war)
felt personally involved b/c 92 million were immigrants or children of immigrants.
and Irish for Central Powers
Americans for Allies
wanted Americans to remain neutral.
•Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe. •Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. •Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but…………..it was in Europe. •US was officially NEUTRAL
Neutrality- Influenced by trade
Movement- Be ready for war. Patriotic education (Propaganda)
Movement- Progressives, social reformers and women. (Women marching down streets proclaiming peace).
Stay out of war
U.S. should intervene on
side of Allies Internationalists-
Get involved only to solve the problem and promote peace.
blockades Germany for its contraband.
Britain took all of the goods that were supposed to go into Germany. (Food, cotton, medicine, gasoline)
response = blockade of Britain
Britain and Germany competed to build the largest and strongest navy. Germany blockaded Britain by navy. Propaganda used by Britain to sway U.S. opinion. Lusitania- 128 Americans killed Germany agreed to stop blowing up passenger ships. March 24,1916 Sussex was sunk by Germans
Pledge- Germans would warn ships before they sank them.
authorized banks to make a huge loan to the Allies.
•May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner. •Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. •Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans. •U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of “unrestricted submarine warfare”. •US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians
Jan. 31, 1917
Germany informs U.S. that the Sussex pledge would be ended.
U.S. cuts off diplomatic ties with Germany.
Note- Germany promises lost land to Mexico if they declare war on U.S.
War Industries Board (Bernard Baruch) coordinated production and price controls Food Administration (Herbert Hoover) voluntary efforts to conserve food for soldiers Financing - Liberty Bonds
America and the War Effort (p. 636)
“Remember Your First Thrill of American Liberty” (p. 649)
on Public Information propaganda agency in America (George Creel) “do your bit” for the war Hate the Hun, Liberty Cabbage, Salisbury Steak, Can the Kaiser
Espionage and Sedition Acts (1917-18) jail sentences for those critical of disloyal or abusive remarks toward US war effort Schenck v. United States (1919) “clear and present danger” - free speech could be limited
Service Act (1917) draft: 2.8 million draftees, 2.9 million volunteers Eventually 2 million were sent to Europe Blacks - 400,000 served, few officers Blacks hoped for service abroad = equal rights at home (not so)
Women took mens jobs while men were “Over There” led to Nineteenth Amendment Mexicans - left Mexico (upheaval and revolution) and took jobs in American West Blacks - Great Migration to northern cities for job opportunities and to escape poverty
revolution and withdrawal (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk) allowed Germany to focus on Western front entirely Naval shipping losses = huge. Led to “Convoy System” and record ship construction
Expedition ary Force (AEF) General John J. Pershing First major action in spring 1918
German Counteroffensive Chateau-Thierry (2nd Battle of the Marne) Belleau Wood (June 1918) Meuse (river) Argonnes (forest) Offensive (Fall 1918) St. Mihiel November 11, 1918 Armistice (cease-fire)
Map 22.2 U.S Participation on the Western Front, 1918 (p. 644)
Americans died in 1918 combat 1918 Influenza epidemic (worldwide) killed thousands of soldiers and millions of people around the globe 112,000 American fatalities from flu
and Palace of Versailles Big Four: • Woodrow Wilson
(USA) • David Lloyd George (GBR) • Georges Clemenceau (FR) • Orlando Vittorio (IT)
Russia excluded Defeated powers humiliated Wilson’s 14 points the major proposal
the world safe for democracy” #1-5 - international law recommendations #6-13 - European boundary restructure #14 - League of Nations
Map 22.3 The Great Migration and Beyond (p. 650)